|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 62-68
Inter-sectoral interaction in oil spill incident: Zayande Rood case study
Golrokh Atighechian1, Katayoun Jahangiri2, Mohammad Reza Maleki3
1 School of Health Management and Information Sciences; Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Family Health Department, Health Metric Research Center, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Tehran, Iran
3 School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||25-Jun-2014|
Mohammad Reza Maleki
School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Five years ago, due to driver bulldozer recklessness, Isfahan-Omidiyeh Oil Pipeline was broken and the extensive oil spill was happening in ZayandehRood, and the surrounding land and the river was polluted. After the incident, the drinking water of some cities was completely cut off for 48 hours. This study was done to present a successful example of inter-sectoral cooperation and interaction for the management of an environmental disaster. This is an applied research that was carried out in five stages. First, a review of the literature was done about oil spill in water resources. Second, the incident was reviewed by existing documents. In the third stage, through interviews with those responsible or involved in incident management, information identifying the roles, responsibilities and interventions and finally content analysis was used to analyze data and design interactive models for oil spill management. Results In response to the incident, widespread acts were done by Governor, Office of Water and Waste Water, The Environmental Protection Agency, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The Fire and Safety Services, oil companies and other organizations were responsible for cleaning the area and preventing entry of crude oil, dewatering and water treatment facilities. After cleaning the river and carrying out the necessary tests, water treatment carried out in compliance with relevant standards. Also by coordination in Isfahan province, side problems of water cut were reduced to a minimum. One of the most persistent and dangerous pollution of water resources is oil pollution. This type of pollution is a threat to ground water resources and surface water resources. To reduce the risks of oil spills, prediction and identification of black spots and actions that lead to the occurrence of such events are essential. The inter-sectoral interaction and collaboration between organizations involved in the pre-disaster should be considered.
Keywords: Accident, disaster management, oil spill, zayandeh rood river
|How to cite this article:|
Atighechian G, Jahangiri K, Maleki MR. Inter-sectoral interaction in oil spill incident: Zayande Rood case study. Int J Health Syst Disaster Manage 2014;2:62-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Atighechian G, Jahangiri K, Maleki MR. Inter-sectoral interaction in oil spill incident: Zayande Rood case study. Int J Health Syst Disaster Manage [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Sep 30];2:62-8. Available from: http://www.ijhsdm.org/text.asp?2014/2/1/62/135378
| Introduction|| |
Comprising only about 3 percent of the world's water and a smaller portion contained in our lakes and rivers, fresh water is considered a highly valuable and scarce resource (Camp, 2010) (Serageldin, 1995). , Given the necessity to protect and maintain this resource, effective management of fresh water, including the inland waterways, is essential (Camp, 2010) (Biswas, 2004). ,
One of the components of fresh water resources is prevention of pollution. One of the contaminations is chemical contamination. It causes loss to animal lives, damage to property or natural environment and has a serious effect on local activities. Such an incident needs a management that involves extensive resources, equipment, skills and manpower from many agencies with an efficient coordination that demand complex action and would take a long time (Assilzadeh, 2010). 
Oil spill incidents in recent years have led to significant effect on water, particularly surface water. Pollution caused by these incidents often leads to a disaster in water resources management in Iran (Arab Khezaeli Mahabadi, Gandomkar and Shams, 2009). 
Many cases of water pollution are unavoidable. However, many cases of water pollution and environmental degradation can be avoided, controlled and managed. Survey data in the world showed that oil spill events from oil tankers, oil wells, tanks and pipeline in oceans, seas, rivers, and other surface and underground sources are repeated (Arab Khezaeli Mahabadi, Gandomkar and Shams, 2009). 
For example, in 1983, during the Iran-Iraq War, about one million barrels of oil has entered into the Persian Gulf. In Iran, in recent years, some oil spill incidents have been occurring in Kurdistan, Khuzestan, Golestan, Isfahan and Lorestan (Arab Khezaeli Mahabadi, Gandomkar and Shams, 2009). 
This paper was investigated to Fracture oil pipeline in chelvan area in Chahar Mahal Bakhtiari on 14 April 2008. This was one of the most notable and unprecedented oil spill incidents that leads to the pollution of one of the most vital waterways in Iran.
Existence of waters such as Zayandeh Rood, which originates from the Zagros Mountains, and especially Zardkooh are the reasons for the emergence of the city. Isfahan has been built on a relatively flat plain with a slope of about 2 percent, and towards Northeast. During the past centuries due to more water and less pollution, it had been further developed in the southwest side. On the other hand a large part of the economic and social life of the province of Isfahan is directly or indirectly dependent on the Zayandeh Rood (farsfoundation) (2013). 
The river Zayandeh Rood is the major source of water supply for agriculture and drinking water of Isfahan and other cities of the province of Isfahan (Hosseinkhani, 2009). 
Zayandeh Rood, or Zendehrood Rivermeans life-giver river, is the largest river of Iran's central plateau, which originates from the central Zagros Mountains, going east in the central desert of Iran about 200 km and eventually flows into the Gavkhooni lagoon. Unlike many of the rivers of central plateau of Iran, which are seasonal, Zayandeh Rood is permanent. The Zayandeh Rood river basin is 41,500 square kilometers (Imna, 2013).  At the most favorable conditions, the water flow of the river is estimated at 1.2 kilometers per year or 38 cubic meters per second (Statistical Center of Iran, 2013) , (Portal of Ministry of Interior, 2011). Most of the flowing water enters the Isfahan province through Zayandeh Rood River. Province of Isfahan is located within the hot and dry climate; hence, the freshwater resources in the province has limited capacity. Since the population of the province is growing, this results in the growth of agricultural and drinking water needs of the province (water supply needs of the province reach to 10 billion cubic meters in the year 2021). In addition, some parts of water resources cannot be used anymore, due to pollution. Frequent droughts help the previous factors to make the province enter the dangerous conditions called 'water crisis' and have triggered the sound of alarm for reduction of water resources of the province (fars foundation) (2013). 
To reduce the risks of oil leakage, it is essential to predict and identify the black spots and actions that lead to such incidents. In executive projects, such as road construction, drilling, excavation and fuel supply, all the possible cases which could cause oil pollution of water resources should be identified. This phase of the leakage management is called 'prevention stage'. The next step in the leakage management is the preparation of a compiled applicable program for the times of occurrence of accidents such as any form of oil spills into water resources, so at the times of accidents, required precautions are taken in accordance with this program. This phase of oil leakage management is called 'crisis management', which in fact is said to be an 'executive management'. Preparation of equipments to deal with accidents and quick notification of relevant organizations and finally implementation of projects of cleaning up oil pollution from land and water borders are some of the oil leakage management tasks (Arab Khezaeli Mahabadi, Gandomkar and Shams, 2009). 
The present study has been carried out with the aim of introducing the risk management of chemical substances, and introducing a successful example of water resources oil contamination control by inter-sectoral cooperation and interaction in the management of an environmental crisis.
| Subjects and Methods|| |
This case study is an applied research that has been conducted in five phases.
In the first phase, a review of the existing literatures about toxic substances leakage, especially oil products spills in water resources has been carried out. In the second phase, the incident was investigated using a review on related existing documentations, deeds and texts in governorate of Isfahan province, sanitation Vice-Presidency of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Water and Waste water Organization of the province, Regional Water Organization of Isfahan province, environmental organization of Isfahan province, the Organization of fire stations and safety services of Isfahan province, and news reports of publications and news and informative web sites in world-wide web. A qualitative study was conducted in the third phase. This phase was carried out using interviews with those responsible or involved in the management of the event and a number of employees at the Disaster Management Headquarter of Isfahan province Governorate, the Environmental Health Department, sanitation vice-presidency of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, and environmental organization of Isfahan province. The output of this stage was the identification of roles, responsibilities and also interventions made by the entities in charge of the mentioned incident. In the fourth stage, the data collected from the previous steps were summarized and undergone content analysis, so they could be used as a basis for further studies and preventive interventions in this field. Finally a model was designed and proposed for inter-sectoral cooperation and interaction.
| Results|| |
On Monday, the 14 th of April of 2008 at 15 o'clock, due to recklessness of the driver of bulldozer belonging to the Road and Transportation Office, Omidieh-Isfahan crude oil pipeline broke and suffered oil spill because of a Ripper collision at 500 m upstream of Zayandeh Rood in the area of Chalvanshahr Saman of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province. The hole diameter was about 20 cm and with a pressure of about 3000 PSI (pounds per square inch), the crude oil spread volume polluted up to a radius of 500 meters of surrounding lands, including streams, water wells and Zayandeh Rood river. The distance from the location of incidence in the river basin area is about 70 kilometers (Hosseinkhani, 2009).  Since two-thirds of the Isfahan city's drinking water, and 40 other cities of the province of Isfahan is provided from Isfahan's water treatment plant (Hosseinkhani, 2009),  with the occurrence of the incident the drinking water for the mentioned cities was completely cut off for 48 hours [Table 1]. Upon notice of the authorities and officials of Isfahan province of this matter, with the focus on the General Directorate of Reconstruction and Disaster Task Force of Isfahan province at the Isfahan's governorate, a committee was formed quickly to deal with oil spills and coordinate with other responding agencies.
|Table 1: General characteristics of the oil spill incident in Zayandehrood river|
Click here to view
Immediately after the incident, the authorities responsible for the control of oil-polluted water came into action and after eight hours, firefighting forces were able to repair the damaged pipeline.
Due to the pressure inside the tube, the eruption of oil in the early hours was reported up to a height of 40 meters and a radius of 500 m. The amount of oil discharged from the tube was estimated at least 4.5 million liters (Hosseinkhani, 2009). 
The regional geographical position was such that the crude oil transmission pipeline was by the road overlooking the river. Also down the road and at the edge of the river, the Kouthar resort complex was located owned by the Iranian Revolutionary Guards of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province.
In the early hours of the accident, all the existing local transportation facilities and stakeholders were mobilized and began to construct a dike in the path of the road to contain the crude oil flow and prevent it from entering into farms and gardens around the river and eventually into Zayandeh Rood river.
Following the oil spill and pollution of Zayandeh Rood river water, the water was cut off in some parts of Isfahan, and also mineral water became rare in Isfahan. Isfahan's Disaster Task Force announced in its statement that the inhabitants of districts around the area not to use any water from that area and be aware of the water pollution.
A few hours after the accident, the experts of the ministry of petroleum reached the area by helicopter and controlled the crude oil leakage. Also simultaneously, multiple tankers arrived at the accident scene and began to collect and transport the crude oil gathered there. Unfortunately, due to proliferation and accumulation of oil, the constructed dike was destroyed against two pieces of pipe with the diameter of one thousand mm, which were located across the road to guide floodwaters and so, the majority of gathered crude oil was diverted to the gardens around the river and eventually Kahkesh channel adjacent to the river and finally spilled into the river.
At 23 o'clock that night of the incident, while forming the Disaster Task Force in the nearest city of the incident location (city of Lenjan) and notifying the authorities of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, the required measures concerning monitoring of water hygienic quality and required interactions with regional water and wastewater companies, deputy-governors and municipalities of Lenjan, water treatment plant and Disaster Task Force of the province were carried out. However, due to the emergency measures taken by the agents of the ministry of petroleum and fire-fighting leakage of crude oil from the mentioned pipeline was fully prevented and the respective teams started to clean up the environment.
Different methods were used for the initial clean up of the river, one of which can be referred to, was hydraulic shock. At the beginning of the oil spill in a 60 km part of the river, at the initial discharge rate, plenty of oil spots were accumulated between the tree roots and by increasing the discharge rate and creating a hydraulic shock, many of the trapped spots were detached and diverted into another route to clean up the stains.
One of the methods used to clean up the rivers and seas is utilizing the ecology. Due to the lack of preparation, polystyrene ceiling blocks and sacks, straw and charcoal were used in the inflow pond of Cham-e-Aseman dam and water treatment plant of Isfahan to wipe the oil spills from the water surface and significant results were observed for the removal of oil in times of emergency.
However, due to the limitations and inability of sanitary agents to enter the incident region in the same early morning hours, the crisis committee was formed consisting of experts in environmental health of the province and while the division of responsibilities took place regarding the higher control of Isfahan's drinking water and involved cities (Lenjan - Mobarake -Najaf Abad- Falavarjan- Khomeini Shahr- Borkhar- Nain- Ardestan). The number of chlorinating measurment cases and microbial sampling were increased and emphasis placed on the management of usage and storage of drinking water, and numerous communications with municipal-rural water and sewage water treatment companies, Deputy of medical affairs, Deputy for Food and Drug and commerce organization and General Director of Disaster Task Force of governorate ofprovince were conducted.
Notably, due to the highly polluted river water with oily materials, the Water Treatment Plant was completely removed out of the water distribution circuit from the very early hours of the incident and in this regard, some communications were carried out with municipal water and sanitation organization, Medical Deputy, and the Center for Professional and Environmental Health for preparedness for a possible water shortage, water harvesting demand from the reserved tanks of ABFA Co for hospitals, intensified monitoring of healthcare experts and also asking for per chlorine and chlorine-meter kits from healthcare and environmental health center due to the occurred disaster.
After 48 hours, oil entering the river was majorly prevented and floating oil in the river and its margins were largely wiped off by boats and other amenities. Also at the entrance of Cham-e-Aseman dam, which is the water-supply of Isfahan's water treatment plant, the Cham-e-Aseman dam facilities and raw water transportation tunnel and Isfahan's water treatment plant were greatly prevented from pollution using innovative skimmers and finally, despite the loss of several billion tones of the water resources of the state, water supply was resumed after 48 hours.
Three days after the accident (April 17 th 2008), because water treatment plant was out of water supply circuit and due to inadequate water supply from Felman water wells and other wills and frequent reports of environmental health experts on the increase of zero residual chlorine cases in the urban water supply network and public reports about water shortage in the city, it was a concern that citizens might use unsafe water sources and another crisis might develop. In this regard, health experts of the state and involved cities began to educate, inform and adopt the necessary measures and intensify their monitoring.
In the afternoon the same day, the expert in charge of Environmental Health of the state and Environmental Health Water expert, together with one of the faculty members of Health Department went to the location of Isfahan's water treatment plant and began to evaluate the existing conditions, compare the input and output water of treatment plant, compare performed Total Oxidizable Carbon (TOC tests) and perform the usual tests, including smelling, tasting and the appearance of water and with phone calls, consultation and interaction, necessary co ordinations were made with Isfahan's refinery for sending samples to perform TOC tests. It should be noted that during the site visit from the filtration location of the treatment plant, oil film could be clearly observed on the surface of the filters. On Friday, (April 18 th 2008), water of treatment plant with 30% of the capacity joined back into water circuit, so the difficulty of residual chlorine was solved, but still numerous complaints regarding the smell of oil were reported by the people, and this trend continued throughout the next day. Also, control measures by health centers in Isfahan province about residual chlorine measurement and increased microbial control of water and emphasize on the sanitary control of water in populous centers such as barracks, universities, homes for aged people, hospitals, etc., were performed.
Also Health Center of the province asked from the environmental and professional health center by telephone that through the Director Generalof Environmental Universal Monitoring Office of the Environmental Protection Organization of Tehran carries out the necessary Coordinations to send a number of samples to evaluate the potential water pollution to oil hydrocarbons so the samples could be sent to Tehran as soon as possible. Also coordinations with Sharif University of Technology were carried out to send samples. In this regard, pursuant to the telephone tax, the actions taken about the water situation in Isfahan and other involved cities were sent to the Director General Office of Disaster Task Force of the governorate.
On April 20 th 2008, a total of 20 samples were harvested from different areas, including entry and exit points of Isfahan's water treatment plant and some parts of the city for testing of PAHS petroleum hydrocarbons, 9 samples of which were sent to the laboratory of Tehran's environmental protection and simultaneously, three samples were sent to Sharif University of Technology for testing petroleum hydrocarbons and potential formation of intermediate products due to breakdown of the petroleum compounds and also eight samples were sent to Isfahan's refinery to measure the TOC values.
Based on the experimental results, a week after the incident, petroleum compounds in water samples entering the treatment plant have been decreased considerably, but the existence of lighter compounds such as bromo-dichloromethane, di-bromo-dichloromethane and tri-bromo-methane was clearly seen in treatment plant effluent water samples, which could have been generated by the conversion of petroleum compounds through the oxidation process and based on this report, the effluent water samples of treatment plant were not suitable for drinking.
The results of experiments, nine days after the accident indicated that the amount of oil compounds were decreased but some halo-methane compounds were still evident in some instances, especially in cases related to treatment plant effluent water, which reported higher amounts than the standard rate.
Twenty-two days after that event all the executive agents were engaged in the clearing and excavation of the area, many of the trees soaked with oil had been cut off, around the river, the oil leakage could be seen to a depth of 2 meters, which was excavated. According to estimates, about 80% of the accident area were cleaned or being cleaned and basic steps were taken, butthe oil film still could be seen in the water, oil spills and oil pollution in the water was mainly due to foliage in the blind spots of the river and around the Zayandeh Rood river. On the same day, according to correspondence with commerce organization about supplying required packaged water for citizens if necessary, in a letter all taken measures by that organization was announced to the Health Center of the province.
Thirty-two days after the event, excavation and proper soil replacement were broadly evident and desirable. Oil-impregnated trees had been cut off, but no significant action was carried out to dredge Kahkesh channel located adjacent to the river and fuel remnants could be observed clearly in the Kahkesh channel.
In the carried out investigations, the cause of this incident was uncoordinated widening of the main road by the Ministry of Roads and Transportation and crash of a bulldozer with the pipeline. Despite the abundant accumulation of gas in the air due to the oil spill from the pipeline, no fire happened in the area.
According to the expert evaluations of environmental protection general office of Isfahan's province, more than 13 billion tonnes in damage were imposed only in the water sector. In this incident, the crude oil polluted the surrounding lands to a radius of 500 meters and by collaborating with the relevant units of the province, the material surface (Saman) and the locations around the pipe were dredged.
During the incident, a number of organizations and scientific institutions participated with being a responsible organizations, which can be mentioned as the following:
Isfahan University of medical sciences, Department of Environmental Health:
- The team formation consists of professors and faculty members attended the School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and school of Chemistry from Sharif Universityof Technology and Isfahan Universityof Technology
- Executive Committee constituted under the Disaster Management, Office of the Governor
- Inform people through the Executive Committee about status of drinking water
- Sampling andtesting to control the quality of drinking water (THMs, PAHs, BTEX, TOC, DOC,…)
- Regular visits from the water treatment plant, Film wells, irrigation networks and neighboring cities
Disaster Management, Office of theGovernor
- Establishment of a disaster management committee in the nearest city to the scene in the early hours
- Creating the interaction between authorities from Isfahan university of medical sciences, Isfahan water and sanitation organization, municipalities and Fire and Safety Services Organizationfor providing safe drinking water
- Enough and fast coordination with responsible organization in Chahar Mahal Bakhtiari
- The executive Committee for med under the Governorof the Isfahan Province
- Joint meetings and regular visit with local disaster managers
Water and sewage Organization
- Stopping water entering the treatment plant
- Installation innovative hand made skimmer at the treatment plant
- Usefoam, sack, coal and rice straw in Canal and river stretches to absorb oil
- Continuous monitoring of water quality in different units of the treatment plant
Environmental Protection Agency:
- Legal follow up and dealing with the faulty unit
- Supervision on the river bed and limits cleanup (identification, collection and cutting down the contaminated trees)
- Supervising the excavation of contaminated soil and transport of more than 5,000 trucks of oil-impregnated soil out and replaced with appropriate soil
- Monitoring on collection of oil pollution and contaminated objects from the river surface
- Holding meetings with oil cleansing companies and evaluating their ideas with the presence of experts from other agencies
Organization of regional water of Isfahan:
- Pollution rate evaluation of 125 points
- Floating objects (containers, cans and foliage) as much as 1200 meters over the river
- Earth and stone walls and river bed as much as 10,000 square meters
- Tree trunks
- Kahksh channels located in the incident location as much as 3000
Isfahan's fire-fighting organization:
- Presence of technical and reinforcement forces in a timely manner
- Collecting oil from the water surface by a chemical called cleaner 555
- Collecting oil-contaminated foliage and floating objects on the river using special boats
- River border cleanup
Esfahan's Oil Refining and DistributionCompany:
- Experts attendance in the area by helicopter
- Oil transmission cut off
- Preparation of technical facilities for the rapid transfer of collectingcrude oil
- Control and containment of crude oil spill
- Repairing and maintenance of the damaged pipeline
Department of Transportation:
- Timely presence at the place of incident in the early hours
- Create at the levee inthe rootpath to contain the oil flow
- Preventing oil from entering the fields and orchards down the road as much as possible
- Preventing the oil flow into the river as much as possible.
Scientific collaborators were active in the fields of specialized tests and providing scientific solutions for correct and effective response to incidents.
Of academic assistance we can mention to the following:
- School of Health of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
- School of Pharmacy of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
- School of Health of TehranUniversity of Medical Sciences
- School of Industrial Chemistry of Sharif University of Technology
- School of Chemistry of Isfahan University of Technology.
| Discussion|| |
Among the pollution of water resources, oil pollution is one of the most stable and dangerous ones. This type of pollution is a threat for groundwater resources and surface water resources. As the most important source of surface water in central Iran, Zayandeh Rood supplies the water for agricultural and industrial sections, drinking water and the environment of the region From the moment of incident until now, it has been affected with various impacts of this stable pollution and despite extensive and high volume of efforts to deal with it, after 5 years this clearing is still ongoing.
The primary stage of dealing with the incident took place through the construction of a levee and some decisions have been taken as follows:
Firstly, closing the intake tunnel gates in Cham-e-Aseman dam was considered essential to prevent the entry of contamination into the treatment plant. Then floating booms (mechanical method) were used in order to absorb and divert the oily material floating on the water surface of the inlet and outlet of the water transportation tunnel from Cham-e-Aseman to the treatment plant. Then, using skimmers and water jet pumps, the path of oily materials floating on the water surface was diverted and finally using cleaning methods, more contamination occurrencewas prevented. In this context, of the actions taken by the Disaster Task Force governorate, we can mention to formation of Disaster Task Force in the nearest city to the incident location (city of Lenjan) in the early hours (23 o'clock the same night of the incident) and creating interaction between medical sciences university authorities, regional water companies, water and wastewater organization, municipalities, water treatment and fire-fighting organization to take the necessary measures to ensure drinking water safety [Figure 1].
However, the occurrence of incident in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province and its major environmental impacts on the health of drinking water in the Isfahan and Yazd provinces made the supplying services to the incident spot difficult and on the other hand, the lack of immediate access to the provincial authorities at the incident spot, made the dimensions of the problem, broader. Among the challenges of this incident, we can mention the following:
- The absence of equipment, fixtures and appliances to eliminate or reduce oil pollution in river water and the removal of oily materials from the water treatment plant location, according to the technology of the day for related devices
- Lack of adequate laboratory facilities required for use in laboratories of agencies responsible for safe water supply and monitoring such as water and waste water company, Health Center of the province, environmental protection, etc
- Unavailability of the database in case of dealing with such new-emergent events
- Hasty decisions about quick reopening of the contaminated water entry into Baba Sheikh Ali water treatment plant of Isfahan
- Inability to prevent the entering of water contaminated with oily materials through the intake point into the treatment plant (the need for systems such as skimmers, etc.)
Despite the challenges, this incident has had some achievements that can be mentioned as follows:
- Optimal integration and cooperation between the relevant agencies with the focus on governorate
- Familiarity of the relevant agencies with the occurrence of such events and prepare for dealing with them
- The organizations could discover their strengths and weaknesses in times of crisis and could take action to eliminate weaknesses and enhance their strengths
- Enhancing the awareness level of relevant scientific and administrative organizations
- A favorable promise of assistance of national and provincial authorities to install equipped modern analyzing laboratories, water sampling devices in the domain of the responsibility of monitoring the quality of drinking water (provincial health center)
- Knowledge of the ability of local contractors and consulting engineers (sometimes in cooperation with foreign companies) about contaminated sites cleanup methods (biotechnology, industrial incinerators, methods of collecting oil from the water surface)
Finally, the following is recommended for the improvement and enhancement of performance in academic and executive agencies:
- Increasing pipeline safety near the road limits, especially near the rivers
- Installation of information boards in the locations of pipelines crossing road limits
- Securing oil pipelines with a review of riverbed studies and announcing the oil company to take the safety and protective measures about oil and gas pipelines
- Installation of Environmental Health-specific Laboratories for the measurement of parameters such as THM, PAH, toxic agents, heavy metals and etc., at least in five provinces or poles
- Formation of technical and professional teams for counseling in times of crisis
- Preparation of operating and applied procedures and its performance guarantees in times of crisis
- Equipping the water intake point of treatment plant with a skimmer system to prevent complete water entering when necessary.
| Acknowledgments|| |
We would like to thank all the managers and officials in the organizations dealing with the tragedies and disasters who answered our questions patiently throughout the study. Also, we owe our deepest gratitude to Mr. Shishefroush, Head of disaster office in Isfahan and Mr.Saffari, Head of environmental health in Isfahan university of medical sciences and Iran university of medical sciences, who supported us and cooperated with us in this study.
| References|| |
|1.||Camp JV, Abkowitz MD, LeBoeuf EJ. Inland waterway resource and spill management needsin Southeastern USA. Disaster Prev Manage 2010;19:483-97. |
|2.||Serageldin I. Water resources management: A new policy for a sustainable future. Water Res Dev 1995;11:221-32. |
|3.||Biswas AK. Integrated water resources management: A reassessment. Water Int 2004;29:248-56. |
|4.||Assilzadeh H, Gao Y. Designation of an interactive oil spill management system. Disaster Prev Manage 2010;19:233-42. |
|5.||Arab Khezaeli Mahabadi T, Gandomkar A, Shams H.R (2009), oil spills into water resources and its environmental impacts (Case Study of Zayandehrood River), the Tenth National Congress on Irrigation and Reduction of Evaporation, Kerman, Shahid Bahonar University. Available from: http://www.civilica.com/Paper-ABYARI10-ABYARI10_196.html [Last accessed on 2013 Apr 13]. |
|6.||Available from: http://www.iran.farsfoundation.net/fa [Last accessed on 2013 Mar 12]. |
|7.||Hosseinkhani, Mohammad (2009), the incident of oil spill into the Isfahan′s Zayandehrood river, Third Specialized Conference on Environmental Engineering, Tehran, Tehran University, Faculty of Environment, available from: http://www.civilica.com/Paper-CEE03-CEE03_100.html [Last accessed on 2013 Apr 08]. |
|8.||"Isfahan had municipality and city council since 106 years ago" Imna, July 4 th , 2013. Available from: www.imna.ir [Last revised on 2013 July 4 th ]. |
|9.||Khorasan (quoting from the Statistical Center of Iran), May 8 th , 2013. Available from: www.b.sko.ir [Last revised on 2013 May 8]. |
|10.||Portal of ministry of interior. available from: http://www.moi.ir [Last revised on 2011 June 24]. |