|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 103-109
The study of outputs and collaboration of Iranian Researchers in disaster in Scopus citation database from 1999 to 2013
Behjat Taheri1, Hasan Ashrafi-Rizi2, Leila Shahrzadi3, Nayere Sadat Soleimanzade Najafi4
1 MSc of Scientometric, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Health Management and Medical Sciences, Health Information Technology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Health Management and Medical Sciences, Medical Library and Information Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Department of Health Management and Medical Sciences, MSc of Medical Library and Information Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||18-Aug-2014|
Nayere Sadat Soleimanzade Najafi
MSc of Medical library and Information Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background : The phenomenon of collaboration is the largest knowledge sharing network and real interference of researchers in science production and scientific development. So, in the present study we define the outputs and collaborations of Iranian researchers in field of disasters in Scopus citation database from 1999 to 2013. Materials and Methods : Methodology of this study was scientometrics based on collaborations indexes and type of applied study. The population of study composed of all scientific production of Iranian researchers in the field of disasters from Scopus citation database getting indexed from 1999 to 2013 (448 document). Then information for regulation and the final analysis moved to excel software and the collaboration coefficient was obtained by cc formula. The type of descriptive statistics was (frequency, percentage, average, and standard deviation). Findings: Results show that the maximum collaboration were between Iran and Great Britain with (21%) and after that with the United States of America with (20%) and minimum amount of collaboration between Iran with Japan and France with (4%). The group collaboration between authors in1999 − 2011. Results show that Iranian researchers overall can publishe 448 documents in Scopus citation database between 1999 and 2013. Among the years that studied maximum collaboration coefficient in document writing are in 1999 and 2000. Conclusion : Results of author's collaboration coefficient in field of disasters are in appropriate conditions. However, with respect to importance of teamwork and its Influence in the country researches should be encouraged to collaborative research work which can increase quality and numbers of citations furthermore enhanced quantity of scientific production.
Keywords: Collaboration, disaster, Iranian Researchers
|How to cite this article:|
Taheri B, Ashrafi-Rizi H, Shahrzadi L, Najafi NS. The study of outputs and collaboration of Iranian Researchers in disaster in Scopus citation database from 1999 to 2013. Int J Health Syst Disaster Manage 2014;2:103-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Taheri B, Ashrafi-Rizi H, Shahrzadi L, Najafi NS. The study of outputs and collaboration of Iranian Researchers in disaster in Scopus citation database from 1999 to 2013. Int J Health Syst Disaster Manage [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Jan 26];2:103-9. Available from: http://www.ijhsdm.org/text.asp?2014/2/2/103/139060
| Introduction|| |
The phenomenon of collaboration is the largest knowledge sharing network and real interference of researchers in science production and scientific development. Scientific collaboration is the most visible and most accessible index that is used to deliberate and measuring amount of scientific collaboration. Cheong and Corbit in several studies believe that there are positive correlation between scientific cooperation and collaboration which from this point of view collaboration can be considered as the most tangible and most attributable type of research collaboration.  Multiplicity and plurality of group authorship in this field lead to forming a network of common publications or collaboration. Giuliani, De Petris and Nico networks have resembled outlining to status of the scientific community and science structure on university environment in which the researchers as a interconnected entities, form the global system of science production. , Collaboration networks in fact are a kind of social network that named scientific collaboration networks. This collaboration can be performed in different steps of producing a scientific works such as data collecting, data analyses, conclusion and writing research.  Collaboration indexes are collaboration coefficient (collaboration ratio between article authors), collaboration degree (the ratio between number of authors articles to whole of article in group of examination), and collaboration index (average of authors in each article). 
One of the most important subjects that should be noted in any country is disasters. Disasters that divided to natural and unnatural event, always affected human life and lead to a lot of collateral and casualties and caused to interception of social and economical developments. According to available statistics, Iran, after India and China, in number of victims has the third place in the world. With respect to this conditions, discussion about country condition with different aspect in this area are inevitable. Because evaluation of scientific production in terms of quantity, quality and use the results of this research can be lead to decrease of many bad effects caused by this event in country. One of these aspects is study the status of scientific production of researchers and collaboration pattern in this area.  Because in group scientific activity, potentially there are some of features that do not exist in individual activities and if group activities are correctly managed, can be more effective and influential.  Therefore, scientific collaboration must be defined, specific, actual, and systematic.  Totally, persons with participating in research can overcoming to breadth and complexity of science and gait in development of their country.  In the area of scientific products and collaboration coefficient among authors in the field of disasters no article was found, but in the area of scientific products as well as collaboration coefficient in other field some of backgrounds were found, which are briefly mentioned:
Abdulmajid et al. (2010) in research with title of (the amount of author's group collaboration to provided article in professional conferences of librarianship and information in Iran in 2004 − 2007) found that from total of 269 articles provided in professional conferences of librarianship and information, 469 authors participated in writing which authors average number in each article was 1.74 persons. In terms of researchers' sexuality, 55.65% was male and 44.35% was female. Results about the most prolific institutions and Universities indicate that Isfahan University of medical sciences with 38 articles, have the most presence in professional conferences of librarianship and information in Iran. Also this university totally with 32 group articles has the most group articles between all Institutions and universities in Iran. In term of group activity between authors, results show that 57.25% of articles in professional conference had one authors. Also group collaboration coefficient estimated0.16 between articles authors in internal professional conferences of librarianship and information. Generally, amount of group collaboration between Iranian specialists and researches of librarianship and information in professional conferences are in a low level. 
Hydari and Safavi (2012) performed a research with title of (authors group collaboration coefficient in research in medicine journal), results show that all of 250 article was reviewed had 1200 authors and most article written by four persons. Their research shows that tendency to single writing was reduced. Authors collaboration coefficient in their reviewed years from 0.64 in 2007 increased to 0.76 in 2011. 
Marefat et al. (2013) performed a research with title of (evaluation status of authors participation of compilation articles in health information management journal in 2004 − 2011). Results showed that from 789 authors in Health Information Management Journal, 442 persons (56%) was male and 347 persons (44%) was female. The average number of authors in each article was 3.03. Among the various universities and research institutes, Isfahan University of medical sciences with 94 articles, has the maximum portion of group collaboration for article publication in health information management journal when research performed. from whole of 252 published articles in eight-year period, group articles compared with single writer articles have a significant portion so that portion of single writer article totally, was only 8.7.group collaboration coefficient between articles authors in health information management journal in the studied years mostly was above of 0.5. 
Manuelraj and Amudhavalli (2008) performed a research with title of (evaluation of scientific collaboration in the field of occupational health in India). Results show that while the collaboration pattern to studies in this field are high, the correlation between products and collaboration was very low and research activity and developments and output of them in health area in this University was significant. 
Qiang et al. (2001) examine the research collaboration between research in tourism field and hospital field. This research was conducted with published articles in 6 of this journal from 1991 to 2010. Experimental results provided an overview of research collaboration of this field in collaborating networks journal. Linear regression results show that research collaboration with outputs researchers are meaningful. Also this study presented a new method to evaluation researchers collaborations in form of extroversive and introversive. 
Yua et al. (2013) study the research collaborations among field of cardiology in China. Published articles related to this field from 2000 to 2010 were extracted from china national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) and VIP journal integration platform. Some methods such as collaboration, synonym, centrality, k-kernel were used in this investigation. Results show that percentage of collaboration and author's numbers in cardiology field articles in China are rising. Geographical distribution of research collaboration is so unequal. Especially 63 research groups focused on domain of cardiology researches. So these results are effective to define the research directions and collaboration networks. 
So in the present study we define the outputs and collaborations of Iranian researchers in field of disasters in Scopus citation database from 1999 to 2013 which thereby can be achieved the amount of collaboration of Iranian authors with other countries, the most prolific institutions and research centers and Iranian authors and amount of citation to scientific production of Iranian researchers in the field of disasters from Scopus citation database.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Methodology of this study was scientometrics which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods based on collaborations indexes and type of applied study. The population of study composed of all scientific production of Iranian researchers in the field of disasters from Scopus citation database getting indexed from 1999 to 2013 (448 documents). Collecting this number of records was conducted in 16/11/2013. In order to retrieval documents; in part of advanced search of database searching was conducted with considering the period of 1999 − 2013 without constraints in language and document type. Then information for regulation and the final analysis moved to excel software and the collaboration coefficient was obtained by CC formula. The type of descriptive statistics was (frequency, percentage, average, and standard deviation).
The formula of collaboration coefficient is as follows:
In this formula:
J = numbers of authors participating in producing a document.
F j = numbers of documents have j authors in a field that published in certain period of time
N = total number of documents in a field that published in certain period of time
K = maximum number of authors per documents in a field. ,,,
Although for defining purpose the ratio of internal collaboration compared to external collaborations of two international collaboration indexes (INI: Internationalization Index) and nationalized index (NI: Nationalization Index) the ratio of these indexes to each other was used (NI/NI), where these two indexes are: International collaboration index (INI) is index for measuring the efficiency of international collaboration articles.
INI= International collaboration articles/Total article*100
The index which presented and published for calculation of international collaboration by naghpel was so simple and intelligible; also this index can be used to calculation of national collaboration that number of national collaboration articles placed in numerator. National collaboration index is the index for efficiency of collaboration articles which are as follow:
NI= National collaboration articles/Total article*100
By examining the Iranian scientific production in the field of disasters in Scopus citation database during the period of 1999 to 2013, status of scientific production in this country in terms of frequency distribution presented according to year, subject area, type of document, journal title. Totally 448 documents and required information extracted from them.
As shown in [Figure 1], in 2011 maximum number of documents (93 documents) and in 1999 and 2000 minimum number of documents (1 document) was published in the field of disasters.
|Figure 1: Frequency of Iranian researcher's document in the disaster subject area between 1999 and 2013|
Click here to view
The frequency distribution of Iranian documents according to subject area in disasters field was shown in [Figure 2]. Results show that medical field with 142 articles have maximum number of documents and biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology field with 16 documents minimum number of document in the field of disasters.
|Figure 2: Frequency of Iranian researcher based on subject field in disaster subject|
Click here to view
Although results show that documents in form of article with 310 titles and after that the conference article with 99 title have maximum number of articles. Book chapter and note with 1 title have the minimum number of documents in this field [Table 1].
|Table 1: Frequency of Iranian researchers based on document in the disaster field|
Click here to view
The collaboration of Iran with other country in the field of disasters are shown in [Figure 3]. Results show that the maximum collaboration were between Iran and great Britain with (21%) and after that with united states of America with (20%) and minimum amount of collaboration between Iran with japan and France with (4%).
|Figure 3: Iran collaboration with other countries in the disaster subject areas|
Click here to view
[Table 2] show the frequency distribution of Iranian documents in the field of disasters between 1999 and 2013 in Scopus citation database. As it is clear that Islamic Azad University, Tehran University, Tehran University of Medical Sciences with 77, 66, 47 document had maximum number of document, respectively.
|Table 2: Frequency of Iranian researchers documents at disaster subject base on institutions in Scopus citation database|
Click here to view
[Table 3] shows the group collaboration between authors in 1999 and 2011. Results show that Iranian researchers overall can published 448 documents in Scopus citation database between 1999 and 2013. Among the years that studied maximum collaboration coefficient in document writing are in 1999 and 2000. Whereas minimum collaboration coefficient with (0.922) document belonging to 2011. In 2011 because there is no scientific production in this field the collaboration coefficient obtained was zero. Also maximum and minimum mean number of authors in document were in to 2001 and 2012 respectively [Table 4].
Study about the most active authors in term of science production shows that Ali Ardalan member of Cambridge University with cooperation to Iranian authors can producing 10 documents in this area. Yasmin ostovar izad khah member of research and development institute of earthquake engineering and seismology whit 9 documents after him is the most active authors in this field.
Study about the amount of citing to researchers article shows that 448 document produced in 1999 − 2013 received 15774 citation. The most cited articles are related to 2012 with 212 citations that this document was written by collaboration of Iran fit Philippines. Behzad Gareh Yazi from institute of research and development for agriculture and biotechnology collaborated in this article. Minimum number of citation was zero that associated to some of document in 2003, 2005, and 2006.
| Discussion|| |
According to results that obtained from Scopus citation database, Iran during 1999-2013, published 448 documents. This number of documents was produced by 1832 researches which Minimum and maximum number of authors was 1 and 360 persons.
Results showed that collaboration coefficient between authors in disasters area from Scopus citation database between 1999 and 2013 mostly more than 0.9 compared with former research like Marefat et al.  in human development of police in the field of human sciences journal (with average collaboration coefficient of 0.25) and Abdolmajid  in the field of librarianship and information (with average collaboration coefficient of 0.09) and Malek Ahmadi  in Medical science area (with average collaboration coefficient of 0.25) are in a very high level. Furthermore in another research related to amount of group collaboration of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences researchers on the run of research projects, the mean collaboration coefficient 0.35 was obtained. Comparing the results of the present study to other researches in medical area and non-medical area shows that collaboration coefficient for author in this area is at a favorable and appropriate level and is higher than other areas. 
Also average number of authors in each article was 4.08. Comparing the average number of authors in each reviewed article with previous articles like Osareh et al.  and Marefat in basic sciences and medical interdisciplinary area with average of 3.4 authors in each article, Marefat et al.  in medical area with 3.6 persons for each articles in Koomesh and Marefat et al. in medical area on average 4.9 higher for each article in Science and Health journal which implies that amount of participation of authors is high in this area  whereas Erfanmanesh in study on collaboration network in librarianship and information said that maximum researchers in this area trend to single production or collaborate in small groups.  Also Manuelraj and Amudhavalli with examine the collaboration pattern in health area in India shows that amount of collaboration between researchers are so low. 
In this study the most producers and collaborated researchers defined in scientific production in the field of disasters from Scopus citation database. The scientific community composed of producers and consumers and scientific resources that scientific cooperation and collaboration played a significant role for improving the quality and quantity of scientific productions. Some factors such as specialization of science and researchers and development of interdisciplinary fields in recent years forced researchers to collaborating with each others. Thus results in this research shows that 53 various university and institute in different countries collaborating with Iran in this field. Among them Islamic Azad university, Tehran university, Tehran University of Medical Sciences are the most active interior institutions and University Putra Malaysia and York University are the most active foreign institutions. Also results of Erfanmanesh et al. research in study of collaboration network in librarianship and information shows that national library, regional center of science and technology and Azad University, Science and Research Tehran had the most of production and centrality of articles production in this area in librarianship and information journal.  The researches of Durden and Perri  , Vimala and Reddy  , Englebrecht et al. confirmed that collaboration generally lead to increase of total production and cooperation growing significantly. Cost reduction in technology and communication, use the knowledge and facilities of other people, increasing productivity, increase the probability of articles acceptance in journals and increasing of visibility on be considered as an important factor for increasing the collaboration. In analyzing the natures and structure of collaboration network, applied physics and civil engineering in term of number lines and nodes have the maximum numbers among of 25 subjects; results show that subjects of decomposition chemistry, polymer science and organic chemistry have the highest density or integrity between subjects. Topics of organic chemistry, physical chemistry and plasma physics according to vertex index have the maximum amount. 
Citation analysis in this area shows that 448 documents produced in this area received 1574 citation. In this study maximum number of citations related to articles that have more authors (212 citations with 5 authors). Along this study result of Moghali et al. on collaboration pattern between Iranian researchers shows that the most received citations related to documents that in which number of cooperation are higher. In the other word number of collaborating authors in an article can directly affected the increase of citation numbers. Because when the numbers of authors increased scientific and technological ideas and experiences increased so the result of outcome had appropriate quality.  These results have same directions to other study's result such as Sooryamoorthy  and Jonkers  which believed that enhancement in quantity of authors equal to increase of scientific production quality.
| Conclusions|| |
Results of authors' collaboration coefficient in field of disasters are in appropriate conditions. However, with respect to importance of teamwork and its influence in the country researches should be encouraged to collaborative research work which can increase quality and numbers of citations furthermore enhanced quantity of scientific production. This enhancement can lead to producing top technologies and more ever developments in various aspects of economic, political and also in the field of disasters increase of collaboration in science production in international level indirectly lead to decrease of risks, costs, and adverse effects duo to this incidents in national and international levels. In this context, proposed that officials valuing to scientific cooperative activities and allocation of the budget and proper facilities for scientific cooperative activities. Also researches such this study related to scientific collaboration in different area and in other database should be done. For providing the necessary infrastructure increase of encouraging factors and eliminated the inhibitor factors for scientific collaborations in fact give positive direction to collaborating activity between researchers should be tried.
| References|| |
|1.||Cheong F, Corbit B. A social network analysis of the co-authorship network of the Australian conferences of Information Systems from 1990 to 2006. 17 th European Conference on Information Systems; Verona, Italy; 2009. |
|2.||Giuliani F, DePetris MP, Nico G.Assessing scientific collaboration through co-authorship and content sharing. Scientometrics 2010;85:13-28. |
|3.||Erfanmanesh MA, Basirianjahromi R. Authorship network of published article in the Journal of the National Library and organize information using by social network analysis indicators. J Natl Lib Organ Inform 2013;94:76-96. |
|4.||Hassanzadeh M, Baghaei S, Noroozichakoli AR. Reviews the status of Authorship in Iranian papers published in journals Jesse and its impact on citation rates. Rahbord Farhang 2008;2:65-84. |
|5.||Hariri N, Nickzad M. Compiling together networks of Iranian articles in the field of library and information science, psychology, management and economics in Web of Science between 2000 and 2009. Sci Info Technol 2001;26:44-825. |
|6.||Mehrabi N, Sadeghi M, Gholamhosseini L. Crisis management and importance of Documenting in disaster. J Med Iran′s Army 2008;3:1-4. |
|7.||Matlabi D. A review, a comment on some scientific cooperation. Koleiat Mah 2009;13:7-40. |
|8.||Hasanzadeh M, Baghaei S. Scientific community, academic relations and cowork. Rahyaft 2009;19:37-41. |
|9.||Hasanzadeh M, R K, Zandian F. Analysis of co-authorship indicators, betweenness centrality and structural holes of the Iranian nanotechnology researchers in science citation index (1991 2011). Inform Proc Manag 2012;28:223-49. |
|10.||Abdal Majid AH, Saberi M, Afshar M. Rate of teamwork authors of papers presented at the conference on professional LIS Iran in 2004 - 2007.Res Inform Public Lib 2010;16:87-101. |
|11.||Heydari M, Safavi B. Collaboration coefficient authors in the Journal of research medical. J Res Med 2012;36:109-13. |
|12.||Marefat R, Keshavarz H, Ashrafi Rizi H, Sirosi S. Collaboration rate of authors in producing Scientific Papers in Health Information Management Journal during 2004 − 2011. Health Inform Manag 2013;10. |
|13.||Manuelraj P, Amudhavalli A. Collaboration Pattern amongst Health Care Professionals in India. Fourth International Conference on Webometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics; Berlin; 2008. |
|14.||Qiang Ye, Tong Li, R L. A Coauthorship Network Analysis of Tourism and Hospitality Research Collaboration. J Hosp Tour Res 2011;18:51-76. |
|15.||Yu Q, Shao H, Duan Z. The research collaboration in Chinese cardiology and cardiovasology field. Int J Cardiol 2013;167:786-91. |
|16.||Osareh F, Norouzi C, Hakoli A, Keshvari M. Co-authorship of Iranian researchers in science, social science, art and humanities citation indexes in the web of science between 2000 and 2006. Inform Sci Technol 2010;25:573-95. |
|17.||Nikzad M. Comparative study of co-authorship networks of Iranian articles in library and information science, psychology, management and economics in ISI during 2000 - 2009: Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch; 2010. |
|18.||Ajiferukei BQ, Tague J. Collaborative coefficient: A single measure of the degree of collaboration in research. Inform Sci Technol 2007;23:175-81. |
|19.||Marefat R, Rezaee AM, Asgari Z. Collaboration rate of authors in producing Scientific Papers in Journal of police development human during 2004-2010. Health Information Management 2013; 10(3): 499-510.. |
|20.||Malek Ahmadi P. A survey on collaboration rate in research projects of research centers in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2007 − 2010. Proceedings of 3 th National Conference on Scienctometrics in medical fields, 2011; Babol: BaBol University of Medical Sciences. |
|21.||Marefat R, Saberi M, AH A, Zoodranj M. A survey on collaboration rate of authors in presenting scientific papers in Koomesh journal during 1999 − 2010. Koomesh 2012;13:279-85. |
|22.||Marefat R, Saberi M, Abdulmajid AH, Keshavarz H, Azodi M. Collaboration rate of authors in producing Scientific Papers in Danesh and Tandoorosti (knowledge and Health) Journal during 2007 − 2010. Proceedings of 3 th National Conference on Scienctometrics in medical fields; Babol, BaBol University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 2011. |
|23.||Durden G, Perri T. Co-authorship and publication efficiency. Atlant Eco J 1995;23:69-76. |
|24.||Vimala V, Reddy P. Authorship pattern and collaborative research in the field of zoology. Malays J Lib Inform Sci 1996;1:43-50. |
|25.||Englebrecht TD, Hanke SA, Kuang Y. An assessment of patterns of co-authorship accountants within premier journals: Evidence from 1979 − 2004. Adv Account Incorp Adv Int Account 2008;24:172-81. |
|26.||Asadi M, Joulaei S, Saghafy S, Bazrafshan A. Scientific cooperation and cowork in Sharif University production during 2005 − 2010. Natl Stud Lib Inform Organ 2013;24. |
|27.||Mooghali A, Alijani R, Karami N, Khasseh A. Scientific Productions and Authorship Patterns of Top Ten Iranian Scientists. Int J Inform Sci Manag 2012;2:15-26. |
|28.||Sooryamoorthy R. Collaboration and publication: How collaborative are scientists in South Africa? Scientometrics 2009;80:419-39. |
|29.||Jonkers K. Emerging ties: Factors underlying China′s co-publication patterns with Western European and North American research systems in three molecular life science subfields. Scientometrics 2009;80:775-95. |
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]