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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 28-35

Studying the effect of natural hazards on human migration (Case Study of Bam earthquake 2003)


1 M.A Student of Crisis Management Ba-Honar University of Kerman and Emergency Center for Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
2 Faculty of Economics and Management Department of Management, Ba-Honar University of Kerman, Iran
3 M.A Student of Crisis Management, Ba-Honar University of Kerman, Iran
4 Department of Social Science, Faculty of Literature and Humanity, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
5 Faculty of Medicine, Research Center for Health Management and Social Development, Gorgan, Iran
6 5 Azar Hospital, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran

Date of Web Publication17-Dec-2014

Correspondence Address:
Ali Mohajervatan
Emergency Center for Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2347-9019.147147

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Casualties of natural dangers and the risks resulting from improvement of technology are increasing. One of the human responses to these dangers is migration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between migration and natural hazards. Methods: The method used in this study was qualitative research and methods used in this paper are based on library research and documentation and analyzing migration based on the sociological theories of migration. We also tried to gather required evidences due to sociological look at the migration after Bam's earthquake on January 2003. Finding: The findings of this study suggest that in many cases the relationship between migration and environmental risks and ecological characteristics of the type of risk there. Conclusion: The results indicate that environmental factors play an important role in forming the decision made to emigrate especially among those who are most vulnerable. Immigration control after natural disasters should identify factors threatening social and economic environment, and create new opportunities for people affected by planned.

Keywords: Disaster, migration, vulnerable


How to cite this article:
Mohajervatan A, Karnema A, Dehghani M, Garousi S, Vakili MA, Alizad F. Studying the effect of natural hazards on human migration (Case Study of Bam earthquake 2003). Int J Health Syst Disaster Manage 2015;3:28-35

How to cite this URL:
Mohajervatan A, Karnema A, Dehghani M, Garousi S, Vakili MA, Alizad F. Studying the effect of natural hazards on human migration (Case Study of Bam earthquake 2003). Int J Health Syst Disaster Manage [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Jan 26];3:28-35. Available from: http://www.ijhsdm.org/text.asp?2015/3/1/28/147147


  Introduction and Problem Statement Top


The occurrence of natural disasters and unexpected events mainly eliminates the ability of a community to ensure needs and demands with destructive and ruinous effects that it leaves. [1] Complications and injuries due to natural and unnatural disasters leave a profound and deniable effect in humans' life manner and health and hence that a large number of the world's people are died and ten times of them are injured or disabled yearly. [2] Natural disasters' damages have been estimated more than 10,000 people in the world monthly. [3] Iran is among the 10 first countries of the world in natural events incidence, so that two of the five big earthquakes of the world between 1990 and 2006 have been related to Iran; so it seems necessary to the faster pay attention to practical solutions for disciplining crisis management system, especially applying national and universal experiences in crisis affair. [4],[5],[6] Study of natural disasters and events in the past and their compliance with probable events in future is very difficult and time-consuming and at the same time related to each other but also provides this opportunity to prepare ourselves for confronting with later events with enough knowledge and information. [7] Disasters offer a unique set of challenges that requires highly developed chain of instructions, especially when it includes different organizations' response even jurisdictions. [8] One of the consequences affected by natural disasters is migration; migration can relate to environmental hazards through several ways, environmental hazards are effective in decision-making about residence that may be one of the formation factors of migration and on the other hand migration can be considered as a resonator factor of environmental hazards through population density increase in earthquake-prone or flood-prone areas. [9] Surely, displacement and migration in unexpected events has a undeniable role in social issues occurrence among several components of crisis management; migration has consequences in follows that may provoke the occurrence of social issues; undoubtedly, having a codified and predetermined guideline is necessary to accelerate in organizational performance of crisis management collection; since it was cleared in the researcher's reviews that no study has been done with focus on migration after natural disasters, this research seeks to answer these questions: (i) Migration is a complicated phenomenon and has various dimensions and cannot be ignored at the time of natural disasters occurrence? (ii) According to the position of our country among vulnerable countries to natural disasters, migration management and control is required by utilizing crisis management concepts and principles that will be useful in restoring the community to the precrisis conditions; this study tries to address migration reasons and causes with the goal of migration sociological analyzing after natural disasters occurrence.


  Research Generalities and Concepts Top


Any discussion about migration requires an analytical view to basic concepts, theories and available trends in migration studies; therefore, we must see that what are the basic concepts in this area? Who is called immigrant? How is migration categorized? What are the major theories of migration? What relationship is there between natural disasters occurrence and migration? On the other hand, all of the studies and theories of migration try to answer four questions: (i) What causes people to leave the land where they were born? (ii) What attracts them to an especial destination? (iii) What sources they use for their migration? (iv) How the immigrants incorporate themselves in new environment? [10] Who is called immigrant: It must be said in response that there is no inclusive and exclusive definition of migration in the literature related to migration studies; the reason of the lack of a completely operational definition is that since immigrant is derived from different social, economic, industrial and cultural texts makes it hard to reach a conceptual agreement; difference in text and context of migration and/or the space in which migration is occurred, make researches to meet variants of variables and this makes acquiring a definition to meet challenge, by itself. According to United Nations (UN) definition based on statistical reasons, immigrant is a person who enters a country other than the countries that he/she has their nationality and lives there at least 12 months. [11] Although UN statistical definition is used more or less as a base by migration affairs researchers, migration definition may change from country to country, especially in rights framework; migration has two dimensions of geographical and human, in geographical dimension, migration is the movement of a person or a group of humans from one geographical unit to another geographical unit, the new geographical unit is not the birthplace of the immigrant and the immigrant wants to live there permanently or temporarily, according to this definition, the geographical space among several areas must be distinguished: Primary and main place, exit place, final place and destination and entrance place, difference must also be considered between internal migration and international migration. International migration requires passing from political borders and settlement in the lands with different political systems. [12] In human dimension, division and displacement and residence being voluntary and indivisibility in another place are considered in immigrant definition and this includes legal and illegal migrations, what is important is that personal decision and calculation is to new residence and this is the discriminator between immigrant and passenger on one hand, immigrant or refugee and displaced on the other hand, by itself, it is worth noting that sometimes mixing and turbulence are occurred among immigrant and asylum seeker and refugee and displaced. Migration studies researchers have been forced into create various classifications due to migrations variety and colorfulness in order to simplicity in understanding migration issues, each one of these classifications relates to spatial aspects, in these segmentations, immigrants spatial displacement is considered in the form of one-way trips, return trip and trip for migration, cultural and social classifications rely on gender, family, age, professional, ethnic and religious characteristics. Migration cause is the base of another classification by itself and migration is located in this classification because of economic, environmental, demographic and political growth, immigrants' legal status has been also chosen as a criterion for segmentation and legal migration and illegal migration are mentioned in this field in a general classification. [11] Types of migrations can be divided into internal migration, international migration, immigration, population transfer, forced migration, step by step migration and seasonal migration and the following cases can be referred about migration reasons:

  • Environmental: Weather conditions and natural disasters
  • Political factors such as wars
  • Economic factors such as work
  • Cultural factors such as education. [13]


Functionalists believe that all of the social requirements are learned in the framework of social systems. Actors in each system believe requirements that they can't meet them in that system. Therefore, necessary developments may be occurred in actor or in the system or in both of them for decreasing the inconsistencies between the needed feeling and its obtaining possibility. Understanding the inconsistencies between individual characteristics and social system leads to a person's migration in order to decrease structural inconsistencies. [14] Migration dependence viewpoint: Dependence doctrine theory in contrast to functionalists' viewpoint considers migration's causes and outcomes related to each other because from their viewpoint migration and uneven development are interrelated with each other and strengthen each other. They have had a special emphasize on lack of development in migration discussion in this approach and offer their analyzes in relation to the lack of development. They consider migration a result of structural transfer of source communities from traditional systems to industrial and modern systems and integrating them independent capitalist system, therefore, the emphasize of this viewpoint in migrations review is on universal economy structure not on individual development of one country. Dependence viewpoint theorists consider two groups of factors for stating migration's movement and the reason: One group is transforming factors, and another is recessionary factors. [15] Migration theories: The underlying assumption of Michal Todaro is that any potential immigrant decides based on the aim of expected income background that whether he/she go to the city or not. Two underlying economic factors have a role in this decision-making: The first one relates to the available real difference between wages in the urban and rural areas that has been generated because different migrations and workers' training periods. In fact, discrimination between paid wages to urban workers in comparison with rural skilled workers' wages has been recognized a permanent principle in deciding to immigrate. The second underlying element of the aforementioned pattern and the most important part of that which is not in other migration patterns are the success probability rate of any immigrant in acquiring a job in the urban area. The key to understanding the apparently contradictory phenomenon of continuous migration to the centers that unemployment is more in them is the reviewing of migration process with expected or permanent income approach, in which expected income relates to wages payment and also depends on the probability rate that he/she can acquire a job. Ort Lee in intermediate factors theory divides the effective factors in migration decision-making and its process in four groups: (i) Factors that relate to source area, (ii) Factors that relate to destination area, (iii) Inhibitor barriers and (iv) Personal factors; various factors in any area are effective in attracting and repelling the individuals of that area. The strength of Lee's theory is his/her right, and properly emphasize on personal factors. Some people immigrate and some people remain in their habitats affected by these factors. [16] Fuller and Myers, two main experts of value conflict approach, have mentioned three kinds of social issues: Physical, corrective and ethical. Discrimination of these three kinds of issues is that whether people agree over the unpleasantness of related conditions and what must be done about that or not. There is agreement about physical issues (such as natural events) that the related conditions are unpleasant and no work can be done about that (of course, people may disagree over how to deal with the consequences of the event). It is agreed about corrective issues (such as crime and poverty) that the conditions are unpleasant, and they can be corrected but there is no agreement about the action kind. It is not agreed neither about conditions unpleasantness nor about what action must be done among people about ethical issues. Along with the changes that occur in the community, problems also vary from one type to another. However, Fuller and Myers claim that the axis of all social issues is (the available conflicts in culture value general framework), according to Fuller and Myers, social issues have special order and combination. These two experts claim that all of the social issues go through triple stages of awareness, policy and reform; in the first stage, groups are beginning to understand the specific situation that poses a threat to important values, in the second stage, people oppose, redefine values and offer plans for action, in the third stage, one group or more act in defense of their values. [17] Therefore, Fuller and Myers claim that values interfere in all stages of a social issue clearly. A social issue is a situation that whether imaginary or real considers a violation from some social norms that are respected by a significant number of people. Sociology general approach for analyzing all social issues can be found in values conflict that is the characteristic of any kind of social issue. According to the Fuller's triple classification of social issues, physical issue show a situation that especially all people consider that a threat for their prosperity and welfare but it can't be said that value self-judges is the reason of the issue. This issue may be manifested through catastrophic events such as earthquake, sea storm, flood, drought, etc. There is no doubt that these events are the manifestation of serious problems from the vision of the people who are affected but this question is also mentioned that whether such events are considered as social issues or not, since they are not generally the product of the conflict of culture value frameworks. There is no controversy in how the volcano is being stopped; in these cases, causality is attributed to the force of out of human control natural and nonhuman factors; such factors can be called noncultural or precultural. Here you must distinguish between the issue and its consequences; while the earthquake itself does not include judgments or value, its consequences inevitably would need value judgments and program decisions, people may not agree with each other over how much funding should be used to reconstruct after the earthquake, the earthquake itself is not the issue as unemployment is social issue but its consequences can become social issue. [18]


  Research Theoretical Foundations Top


Theories related to environmental hazards

As mentioned, many classic migration frameworks incorporate environmental considerations; we offer brief reviews of classic migration frameworks by Wolpert, Speare, DeJong and Fawcett with a specific focus on environmental hazards in the following. Perhaps the most relevant of the classic migration frameworks integrate noneconomic aspects of residential satisfaction within the process of migration decision-making. Wolpert is often credited with the initial development of a migration model incorporating noneconomic aspects of residential satisfaction. [19] Wolpert's theoretical "stress-threshold" model critically considers the noxious environmental influences which are far-reaching in terms of the potential strain placed upon decision-makers. [20] He posits that the migration is a response to stress experienced from the current residential location, with residential stressors such as pollution, congestion and crime. The model suggests that environmental stressors may lead to habitat displacement. Further, potential migrants determine the "proper place" of alternative residential locations based upon the anticipated satisfaction derived from relocation to a particular locale. These considerations were further developed by Speare. [21] More specifically, Speare outlines characteristics of the individual, household, housing unit location and social bonds as they influence residential mobility, arguing that individuals experience a "threshold of dissatisfaction" after which they may consider residential relocation. He appropriately reviews varying levels of satisfaction according to the social effects and factors based on individual stress tensions. Speare argues that the residential dissatisfaction may result from a change in household needs, change in a particular location's social and physical amenities or a change in the standards used to evaluate these factors. Within Speare's framework, physical amenities as "locational characteristics," are of most relevance for consideration of environmental hazards. Other relevant frameworks operating at the individual or household scale include the value-expectancy (V-E) model in which migration motivation is defined as a function of the value placed on certain goals combined with the perceived likelihood that a chosen behavior will lead to those goals; the V-E model's basic components are, therefore, goals (values, objectives) and expectancies (subjective probabilities). Hence, several certain values/goals (such as wealth, status, stimulation, autonomy, affiliation, morality) with the general value/goal of "comfort" are encompassing aspects of life environment. The goal of "comfort" is a more pleasant or better residential environment, that is, is a healthy or less stressful environment. [22] However, it is argued that decisions with regard to moving or staying are shaped by the ways in which these values/goals interact with individual and household characteristics, societal and cultural norms, personal traits, and variation in opportunity structures between areas. Critical consideration of temporal shifts in individual- and household-level migration decisions can be found in "Zelinsky" explication of the "mobility transition hypothesis." [23] With a focus on the association between modernization and migration, he argues that social and economic changes inherently effect on modernization and increase in personal performance freedom and decline in the difficulties related to breaking ties with residential origins. These changes, it is argued, enhance the role of personal preferences in migration decision-making processes. Researchers have shown that often individuals' preferences and tastes over residential environments free of environmental hazards may increase households' ability of modernization, according to their freely actions for living in less risky residential environments. Environment's concept findings within the neoclassic substantially have less emphasis on microeconomic perspectives that tend to focus more on the human capital and economic dimensions of migration decision-making. Here, migration is viewed as shaped by cost-benefit calculation with personal investment in migration behavior only being justified by sufficient returns to the behavioral investment. Environmental considerations in an implicit sense are environmental pollution or other risks as negative characteristics, and positive environmental attributes that cause probability increase of attractiveness. Econometric migration models have revealed that they are dependent on special features, and an indication of the societal values placed upon some of them that shows wage differentials across locations. Certainly in the conventional economic model, population movement acts as an equilibrating mechanism reducing geographic wage differentials but these wage differentials are often due to variation in location-specific amenities. [23] The existence of location-specific amenities is important, because migration is the only way to consume them. Within the neoclassical framework, individuals might reside in situations with good environmental amenities; conversely, individuals might have to receive higher compensation to continue to live in an environmentally unattractive or hazardous locale. Linking macro and micro characteristics is Petersen's early typology of migration; innovative migration or conservative behavior is the description of the type of migratory force, according to the environmental hazards. He argues that ecological forces tended to shape migration in primitive times that required a conservative response from nomads within the risky area, an effort to recreate status quo without long-distance relocation. Innovative response would entail a flight from the risky area generally to find a less risky environment. Gardner states that in migration decision-making process with the aimed of identifying particular stages of the decision-making process, the effect of macro-level factors should explicitly be considered. He mentioned five such specifications: (i) Formation of values; (ii) Real, place-related macro-level factors; (iii) Factors that affect accurate perception of place (iv) Objective constraints and facilitation of migration, and; (v) Factors that affect accurate perception of the constraints and facilitator. Gardner's effort reflects more explicit view of the value of life place, population and residential satisfaction. As a result, his work is to form the work of Speare, DeJong and Fawcett. Gardner conclusion in this study: At the time of studying migration decisions, while the conditions are on the micro-level, must nevertheless take into account at all steps the influence of macro-factors, the social and institutional, the economic and the geographic context within which the individual exists. Social science research has revealed significant effect that of perceived locale quality in big cities and climate (summer humidity and winter severity) has a significant effect in migration patterns within the context of the US. In addition, levels of air pollution and healthy environments often refer to desirable residential level. [24] Further, Hsieh and Liu argue that in the short-run, pursuance of better environmental quality is the dominant factor in explaining interregional migration. [9] The rural turnaround of the 1970 in the US suggested that environmental amenities such as mountains, lakes and "other areas of natural beauty" represent characteristics of importance within rural places. [25] Slovic argues that people go to the other places in response to the environmental hazards, [26] in fact, amenities cause people's migration as pull factor, is this sentence true? Specifically, relocation and migration can be mentioned as a response to ecological hazards. Risk assessment reflects human judgments, with these judgments influenced by various psychological and social factors. [27] Several reasons can be outlined as to why residents might not migrate from hazard-prone areas. Residents may:

  • Not be aware of hazard
  • Be aware, but do not expect a disaster
  • Expect a disaster, but do not anticipate loss
  • Expect loss, but not serious loss
  • Expect serious loss and have undertaken, or are planning to undertake, loss reduction actions
  • Loss expectation has been accepted as costs of gaining locational benefits
  • Have no choice in location. [28]


In aware of hazards individuals, there are four possible mechanisms of adjustment:(i) Engineering mechanisms (technological adjustment); (ii) Symbolic mechanisms including culture (norms and values), (iii) Regulatory mechanisms (policy), and (iv) Distributional mechanisms (movement of people, activities, resources). The focus within this review is on population distribution through migration. An important exploration that Hugo presented [29] was that he knew environmental concerns related specifically to international migration. Hugo presents a continuum whereby population mobility is viewed as ranging from totally voluntary, in which migration is entirely the resultant of the choice and will of the migrants, to forced, where migrants face death in their present location. In fact, migrants forced out of places of origin due to environmental disruption have been termed, in some contexts, as environmental refugees. [30] Nonetheless, there has been a limited amount of scholarly work undertaken with regard to the migration-hazard association, with virtually none integrating these classic migration conceptualizations. The following section focuses specifically on natural hazards, reviewing some examples of contemporary work that has been undertaken about migration and natural hazards.

Migration as a response to natural hazards

First, a definition: Natural hazards are defined as those extreme events that originate in the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere or atmosphere that pose a threat to people and their possessions. Many natural hazards are recurrent in time and relatively predictable in terms of location, although this is not always the case. The impacts of natural hazards on society are substantial and are clearly on the rise; while severe storms, floods, and earthquakes result in more mortality than population's socio-political issues and phenomena such as civil strife, so, it is clear that relatively greater numbers of individuals are affected. In fact, estimates suggest that between 1/5 and 1/4 of the earths' human population are affected by natural hazards. [9] Even so, impacts of natural hazards are expected to increase; during the period 1972-1995, actual calamities increased by 5-7% per year, while the damage resultant of these disasters increased by 5-10% per year. Predictions to 2030 suggest a continuation of this trend is increased in the future and impacts of these extreme events are due to two factors: Population growth and resultant increases in the built environment in regions most vulnerable to high impact natural disasters, namely coastal and urban areas. [31] Furthermore important with regard to the social context of natural hazards is social variation in vulnerability, [32],[33] with "vulnerability" defined as the characteristics of a person or group in terms of their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a hazard. Most vulnerable are those at the low end of the socio-economic spectrum (SES), both in developed and developing regions. Research has shown that SES is associated with hurricane mitigation in Southern Florida, with low-income households more likely to live in highly vulnerable mobile homes and less likely to have invested in disaster mitigation such as hurricane-resistant windows and roofing. [33] They are also more likely to have no insurance and, therefore, inadequate settlements for rebuilding. In developing regions, the poorest inhabitants are often forced to live on marginal land outside urban areas or coastal zones potentially prone to flood risk. [34] In an aggregate sense, a direct relationship exists between the level of development and type of natural disaster losses. For example, in developing nations, death tolls are much higher than in more developed contexts, while in developed countries, economic losses outweigh human losses. [35]

Migration on a continuum

As noted above, a wide-ranging continuum of environmental hazards might act as a "push" factor in migration decision-making. About natural hazards, migration has been shown forced evacuation. [36] Some disaster location residents do eventually choose relocation as a way; in fact engage in a kind of voluntary migration. The wholesale relocation of communities represents another potential migratory outcome of natural hazards that this relocation is often by force. As reviewed in the subject's concepts, this displacement is a kind of forced migration that people perform voluntarily as response to natural hazards. Community relocation is one of the three forms of reconstruction typically undertaken by disaster-impacted communities; first: Reconstruction that often whereby communities try to restore their character because of human interest to reconstruct culture and interaction. Second, a community may partially reorganize risk within its boundaries up to change, make changes in using its areas' lands, for example, restrict residential redevelopment in flood zones, zoning these areas and more flexible use of these areas, for example recreational space is generated in more hazardous areas. Finally, communities may be relocated to a less hazardous site that as a result, migration is occurred from different distances to reduce future damages. [37] For example, the story of Illinois offers an example, in which village of 900 residents located 35 miles southwest of St. Louis. The 1993 Mississippi River permanent flooding causes flood event, whereby the community was devastated then rapid action to initiate a complete village full relocation project was taken. Flood water had reached depths of 10-15 feet in the village center, destroyed the town's infrastructure, and severely damaged 98% of the village's structures. In October, 1993, a new town site was established outside of the flood plain, on top of a nearby bluff, and in April 1995, the first resident moved into his home in the new town. The community, which includes many of the town's residents prior to the flood, has reconstructed itself with a new sense of permanence. [38] Wholesale community relocation is, however, a relatively rare occurrence, especially within the context of developing nations. Hugo analysis report results [29] about environmental migrants from the UNs Disaster Research Organization News with the researches of the period of 1976-1994 demonstrate that over the last two decades environmental disasters have been existed and the number of displaced people has been increased. As an example, in 1994, migration to urban areas within China at the time of flood and drought in upland areas can be referred. Natural calamities also are often because of "push" migrants from rural to urban areas in Bangladesh, such that causes "an unusual increase of beggars and people looking for work in cities and towns." It has been argued that millions are displaced annually as a result of environmental factors in Africa. Local displacement also takes place, such as in portions of Bangladesh, floods and cyclones regularly occur. Importantly, local displacement in contexts such as Bangladesh is sometimes temporary. Agriculture in Bangladesh is very much dependent on annual flooding and the floods, therefore, take on unique cultural meaning. Although necessary, the persistent floods also change river courses, with many Bangladeshis losing homes and lands to erosion annually. In a survey undertaken in a Bangladesh floodplain in the mid-1980s, 64% of sample households reported having been displaced by erosion with the mean number of displacements being seven. Typically, migrant households relocate only a short distance away; in the aforementioned survey, nearly 88% of households had remained within 2 miles of their previous residence. Such short distance mobility (perhaps temporary) is a product of the lack of resources, presence of kin, and belief that land will re-emerge to be reclaimed. [39] Migration here is a household coping mechanism. Generally having little faith in finding permanent residence; displaces by people often continue to live in fear of eviction. [40] However, migration (short- or long-term) is as a coping strategy that is simply not feasible. Demonstrating the interaction between vulnerability and exposure to environmental hazards, in Peninsular Malaysia, structural factors restrict the residential choices of many inhabitants of risk-prone regions. [34] Based on 1992-1993 interviews with members of 618 flood-prone households, Chan (1995) argues that migration is an option available only to wealthier households, while options are restricted for many others due to poverty in low educations. Another form of migratory response to environmental hazards, in some cases, household members migrate permanently. Here we can look to work by Ezra and Kiros (2001) in ecologically degraded and drought-prone communities in Ethiopia. Multilevel models estimating young adult migration within this context provide evidence for the "new economics of migration," whereby migration of some household members becomes a family strategy for those living in uncertain natural environments. Household migration strategies as related to natural hazards are also seen in South America. On May 31, 1970, a major earthquake struck Peru, killing as many as 70,000 residents and injuring 150,000 others. [41] Results suggest that most migrants were compelled to seek employment through migration because the natural disaster had intensified traditional poverty in their origin villages. Only a handful of migrants indicated that the earthquake was their primary migration motivation. In the US, Morrow-Jones' reviews showed that those noting natural disaster as the reason for their move and displacement (are more likely female-headed households and minority group members, and are characterized by lower income and educational levels). As such, the researchers concluded that the less socio-economically advantaged may be those most likely to migrate following a natural disaster. It is suggested that those households with more assets may be more likely to rebuild [42] and to lessen damage due to events they increase their ability to undertake more mitigation measures such as installation of disaster-resistant windows and/or roofs. Within developing regions, household responses to natural disasters suggest that millions migrate annually as a result of environmental conditions, which may be an important factor fueling urbanization. Other evidence suggests that, in developed regions, socio-economically advantaged households may be those least likely to migrate in response to natural hazard impacts.

Migration in response to technological hazards

Human societies react to technological hazards. Such hazards are often the product of complex systems; some scholars argue that the failure within these systems is inevitable. Technological disasters including a fatal gas leak that leaded to the death of Bhopal's habitants in India and radioactive releases from nuclear plants in Chernobyl, Ukraine cause a large number of migrations and some argue that unseen nature of many environmental toxics and hygiene potential effects have an important role in enlarging perceived risk and problems in determining risk intensity and environmental uncertainty. These cases are new kinds of problems that human produce. [9]


  Findings Top


The performed reviews by the researcher show that there are many evidences of migration after natural disasters. Following Bam earthquake occurrence also two groups of migration have been occurred; the first case have been the people who lived out of Bam city at the time of earthquake because of different reasons; Bam residents who were scattered in the country, returned to Bam after earthquake occurrence because they had land and garden. There were individuals who went to Bam from around cities after earthquake. In that period, Bam was the poverty gateway of south-east that is, provinces' citizens who faced with material and spiritual poverty, felt that they can have facilities by entering to Bam, that is, they wanted to foist themselves by the earthquake's survivors and take advantage of the opportunities? About 20,000 people had migrated to Bam from other cities at the time of the earthquake. In refinements that were performed later, 150,000 people existed there, that is, more than the number of people who lived in Bam previously. However, there was an attachment. There were people who lived in Tehran for 20 years, but while the earthquake occurred returned to Bam because of having relatives or even a garden in Bam. Sense of responsibility for helping people also pulls somebody to Bam. [43] The second type of migration includes a group of Bam residents who have migrated out of city to other cities because of different reasons including the following reasons; nearly 9000 camp units were built in Bam that almost 4000 of them have been being residential units; in the 1 st week of October 2004, a team of experts visited camps at the request of Kerman's Governor General that its results showed that ecological conditions have been hard and frail for the residents; residence vicinity in camps was such that in addition to voice transfer, the neighbors understood many details of each other's life, on the other hand shared facilities like toilets caused additional pressure on vulnerable people such as women without necessary plan in order to maintain them; feeling nonsecurity, unemployment existence for young and work seeking people, lack of general space for entertainment in order to fill leisure times are also the other mentioned problems in this report. [44] Area mean of residential units was 400 m 2 before the earthquake that there was no possibility of units' construction with this area after rebuilding. [45] Our findings also show that 2003 earthquakes with substantial losses that left the city's economic problems. That the rise of crimes in the Bam city, according to research conducted Bam crime and social damage can be fit into four main categories below. The spread of violence and murder in the Bam:

  • Open the strange addiction
  • Evil and insecurity in the bass
  • Ethical problems of libertinism. [46]



  Discussion and Conclusion Top


Migration is a special phenomenon that effect on gender and age groups, religious followers, political activists, ethnic minorities and specialty, wealth and skill owners in different forms and it appears in general form in some cases and for this reason, leaves several and various affects and consequences. Migration leaves special social and economic effects on the cities or areas that accept and don't accept immigrant that cause changing the social and economic structure of those cities. Bam is among the cities that has been effected by migration following earthquake natural disasters occurrence; during Bam earthquake, the people from adjacent area went to this city and began their new life with the hope of attaining new opportunities in this city, [43] a another group exited from the city after earthquake with the hope of attaining better conditions. The existence of immigrants from different cities in Bam who are from different minorities and people and races have effected on the social and economic structure of this city. In line with research theoretical basics derived from stress threshold theoretical basics of Wolpert, [20] Speare [21] and Slovic [26] and movement transfer hypothesis of Zelinsky et al., [23] people's preference in decision-making process for residence is a risk-free place and/or explicitly, life location values and satisfaction of residence location have been effective in people's decision-making in order to perform migration; generally, it can be concluded that people go to the other locations in response to natural disasters; migration after Bam earthquake is consistent with the migration of St. Louis villagers, [38] US south habitants' migration [42] and migration in Ethiopia south [47] that have been effected by ecological hazards. On the other hand, in the all above cases, a few number of immigrants showed that the earthquake has been the main motivation of their migration; in fact consistent with the viewpoint of Fuller and Myers, [18] earthquake has not been mentioned as a social issue but as a physical issue have leaded to the results that have generated value conflict in people. It has needed value judgments and plan decisions. Poverty, unemployment and cultural conflict have been unpleasant consequences that have conflicted with people's acceptable values. The conducted inspections [44] from Bam's temporary accommodation camps have confirmed this point that in many camps, accommodation facilities have been hardly appropriate for a family; insufficient welfare facilities and unemployment as earthquake consequences have leaded migration to different places, on the other hand, as Park says, the foundation of social organization is traditions and customs and family, neighborhood and community control people during sustainability period. Migration to Bam following acquiring new opportunities has undermined the authority of traditional social systems and has caused social disorganization in the community that the consequences of poverty, crime, insecurity and etc. may be found in the roots of rootless life in the areas affected by earthquake. [18]


  Suggestions Top


According to being exposed to the risk of natural disasters and events of many of the country's different areas, it is needed to conduct completer field studies about some ecological natural hazards like earthquake and drought and flood to conduct necessary programming in order to decrease social issues and problems due to this kind of migrations and new studies are conducted in order to generate proper solutions in order to prevent from people's migration for acquiring better conditions in the areas affected by natural disasters.

 
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