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 Table of Contents  
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 45-46

Exploring the impact of migration on dimensions of health: Global overview


Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication17-Dec-2014

Correspondence Address:
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Department of Community Medicine, 3rd Floor, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai Village, Thiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Sembakkam Post, Kancheepuram - 603 108, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2347-9019.147206

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How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Exploring the impact of migration on dimensions of health: Global overview. Int J Health Syst Disaster Manage 2015;3:45-6

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Exploring the impact of migration on dimensions of health: Global overview. Int J Health Syst Disaster Manage [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Dec 14];3:45-6. Available from: http://www.ijhsdm.org/text.asp?2015/3/1/45/147206

Sir,

Owing to the impending globalization, international travel, human trafficking, weak public health care delivery system, and booming of medical tourism, a significant rise has been observed in the number of people who are migrating (local/national/international) every year. [1],[2] In fact, a dynamic association has been observed between disease and migration and a sizeable impact has been observed on health related parameters (viz., types of illness, magnitude, availability of adequate number of resources, etc.). [2],[3]

A broad range of determinants ranging from community level (viz., under-development, rising trends of disease, limited education or job opportunity, socio-cultural norms, inadequate healthcare services, poor housing/water/sanitation, and history of prior migration); household and individual levels (viz., age at migration, male gender, educated individuals, familial separation, marital conflicts, avenues for education); and global health disparities, have been attributed to the rising trends of migration. [3],[4] Furthermore, findings from a study revealed that the major determinants for migration were economic, followed by familial dynamics and health concerns, respectively. [5]

Migrants and other mobile population tend to carry the characteristics of their place and environment of origin which may affect their health status. [6] These migrants may introduce new or previously eradicated diseases to the region of destination, or may contract diseases which are nonexistent in their region of origin. [7] The phenomenon of migration tends to have a multi-dimensional impact on the age-sex distribution; [8] socioeconomic characteristics of a population; [8] treatment seeking behavior; [2] incidence of infectious (viz., malaria, sexually transmitted infections, etc.) and lifestyle diseases; [3],[6] and housing/water supply/sanitation services. [9] In fact, medical screening has been recommended to quantify and record health/disease-related events in the migrant cohorts, so that the formulation of evidence-based policies; allocation of resources; and comparison with national/international data can be ensured. [7],[9]

Despite availability of confirmatory evidence to suggest the association between migration and multiple domains of health (direct/indirect), a significant number of challenges such as lack of an effective surveillance system to quantify the magnitude of migration (including the illegal human trafficking, etc.); nonexisting streamlined mechanism to ensure health screening; inadequate monetary allocation; and no mechanism/preparedness by the health system of countries to adapt to the health needs of the migrants; have been identified. [3],[5],[7] In fact, the migration of human population from one country to another provides a unique opportunity to the epidemiologist to assess the role of the genetic/environmental factors in the occurrence of disease in a population by assessing the health status at the time of migration and subsequently over a period of time. [2]

To counter the impact of migration on health dimensions, there is an immense need to formulate a holistic, long-term, evidence-based, and global healthcare policy, well-supported by international collaboration. In addition, implementation of additional measures such as ensuring sustained political commitment; screening of migrants for health ailments; sensitizing undergraduate medical students during their curriculum/public or private medical practitioners about the cross-national medical encounters; organizing training sessions for outreach workers to improve the treatment seeking behavior of migrants; facilitating delivery of culturally or linguistically sensitive programs for the prevention or treatment of illness in migrant communities; and conducting community-based studies to assess the relationship between migration and health; have been recommended to negate the negative impact of migration, especially on health. [2],[5],[7],[9]

To conclude, for ensuring the effective management of health issues resulting from population migration, a strategically planned integration of national and global health initiatives is desired to counter the concern of global health inequity.

 
  References Top

1.
World Health Organization. International Travel and Health. Geneva: WHO press; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Park K. Principles of epidemiology and epidemiologic methods. In: Park K, editor. Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 20 th ed. Jabalpur: Banarsidas Bhanot; 2009. p. 64-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Collinson MA. Striving against adversity: The dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa. Glob Health Action 2010;3.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
de Oca VM, García TR, Sáenz R, Guillén J. The linkage of life course, migration, health, and aging: Health in adults and elderly Mexican migrants. J Aging Health 2011;23:1116-40.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Florence S, Lebas J, Parizot I, Sissoko D, Querre M, Paquet C, et al. Migration, health and access to care in Mayotte Island in 2007: Lessons learned from a representative survey. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2010;58:237-44.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Bedi US, Singh S, Syed A, Aryafar H, Arora R. Coronary artery disease in South Asians: An emerging risk group. Cardiol Rev 2006;14:74-80.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Koehn PH. Globalization, migration health, and educational preparation for transnational medical encounters. Global Health 2006;2:2.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Norman P, Boyle P, Rees P. Selective migration, health and deprivation: A longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med 2005;60:2755-71.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Gushulak BD, MacPherson DW. The basic principles of migration health: Population mobility and gaps in disease prevalence. Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2006;3:3.  Back to cited text no. 9
    



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