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Disaster risk reduction knowledge of Grade 11 students: Impact of senior high school disaster education in the philippines
Mark Anthony Catedral Mamon, Regin Adrian Vargas Suba, Ignacio Lakip Son
July-September 2017, 5(3):69-74
Introduction: The Department of Education of the Philippines implements one of the provisions of the Philippine disaster risk reduction and management act of 2010 (DRRM Act) to integrate DRRM in the school curriculum and other educational programs, and to heighten the level of resiliency of students toward natural disasters. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the disaster-related knowledge, preparedness and readiness, adaptation, awareness, and risk perception of Grade 11 students. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 respondents answered the survey questionnaire about DRRM. Responses of Grade 11 students were assessed using the five-point Likert scale. Results: There is a high percentage of students who understood some disaster-related concepts and ideas. Moreover, Grade 11 students are ready, prepared, adapted and aware on the risks inflicted by disasters. However, students were found to have low-disaster risk perception. Conclusion: Senior high school students have high levels of disaster-related knowledge, preparedness and readiness, adaptation, and awareness. This could possibly be the effect of the integration of disaster education in the senior high school science curriculum.
  78,123 5,118 -
Primary healthcare system in India: Evolution and challenges
Harshal Tukaram Pandve, Tukaram K Pandve
July-September 2013, 1(3):125-128
Primary healthcare is a vital strategy which remains the backbone of health service delivery. Primary healthcare is the day-to-day care needed to protect, maintain, or restore our health. For most people, it is both their first point of contact with the healthcare system and their most frequently used health service. In India concept of primary healthcare was laid down by the recommendations of Bhore Committee (1946). In last 6 decades of independence, we have seen much improvement in primary healthcare services, infrastructure, and related healthcare indices of the country. Still many challenges are ahead to achieve health for all. There is a need to review primary healthcare in the country to know our strengths and weaknesses to face the challenges in the future. This review article discusses the evolution of primary healthcare system in India over period of time. It also focuses on the challenge for primary healthcare system in current scenario and in future. A search strategy involved a detailed literature review on the subject of primary healthcare system in India. Indexed and non-indexed journals, websites of important organizations, and national programs in the field were identified and searched for key words. The most relevant publications were reviewed in detail and included in the present review.
  21,070 1,859 5
The role of media in crisis management: A case study of Azarbayejan earthquake
Fateme Ghassabi, Firoozeh Zare-Farashbandi
April-June 2015, 3(2):95-102
Introduction: In the age of information, mass media are considered one of the most important means of communication. This creates an important role for mass media in creating national unity and remodelling of public opinions due to the widespread access to the mass media. Crisis in all its forms are an inseparable part of mankind's life and their diversity is increasing over time. Mass media play a special role in providing information and making people aware of the situation during crisis situations. The media can calm the populace and encourage them to do positive actions, and vice versa, terrorized the populace and create chaos. The aim of this article is to evaluate the role of media in informing people in crisis situation caused by Azerbaijan earthquake based on the opinion of university students. Materials and Methods: This is an applied study using survey method. The statistical population consisted all of the students of Allameh Tabatabai University in Tehran and cluster sampling method was used to select 350 students for additional study. The data collection instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire. Results: The results showed that most respondents have been following the news through national television channels. According to the findings, the mass media plays an important and positive role in covering this incident motivated the populace to send humanitarian helps to disaster areas. Also most respondents tend to follow the news of the incident until the news coming from disaster areas return to normal. Discussion and Conclusion: All types of media play a critical role in disaster management, prior alarm systems and public education regarding disaster management; therefore, playing an important part in reducing the casualties and financial losses caused by such disasters. People expect mass media coverage during and after disasters and crises to be realistic, objective and non-promotional so that the events are reported in a precise and accurate manner.
  21,367 1,327 -
The role of health information technology in reducing preventable medical errors and improving patient safety
Asghar Ehteshami, Peyman Rezaei, Nahid Tavakoli, Mahtab Kasaei
October-December 2013, 1(4):195-199
Medical errors have become an increasing public concern among policy-makers, healthcare providers and experts. Medical errors in the U.S. hospitals and healthcare institutions are the third leading cause of death and almost 98,000 people annually lose their lives in this way. According to healthcare and health industry leaders, using information technology enhances patient safety by preventing medical errors, assessment errors and surveillance system with rapid response and reduces the risk of harm created after the fact. In this paper, medical errors are investigated, the role of information technology in reducing and preventing medical errors is investigated, and recommendations are presented regarding the use of information technology for prevention and reduction of medical errors in healthcare institutions. Scientific databases and electronic journal citations were searched to identify articles that discussed the role of health information technology in reducing preventable medical errors and improving patient safety. We used reference tracking and citation methods and searched by following keywords: Information technology, medical errors, computerized provider order entry (CPOE), and clinical decision support system (CDSS). A total of 33 related articles were included in this study from the 609 articles initially obtained from the searches. Nature of medical errors occurring in healthcare organizations includes medication prescribing, treatment, procedures, diagnostic and administrative errors. Among systems and techniques that are used to prevent and reduce medical errors, CPOE, CDSS, EHR (Electronic Health Record), BCMA (Barcode Medication Administration) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) are well known. Studies show that in reducing errors, and improving quality of care, CPOE, CDSS and EHR are more effective than other technologies. The integration of CPOE with CDSS, also likely leads to a further reduction of medical errors. CPOE covers all three healthcare quality problems (low use, misuse and overuse). Furthermore, EHR increases the effectiveness of healthcare and reduces medical errors through reminders, alerts and internal intelligent capabilities.
  17,258 4,957 2
A Review of models and theories of health information seeking behavior
Anasik Lalazaryan, Firoozeh Zare-Farashbandi
October-December 2014, 2(4):193-203
One of the ways for preventing diseases is the transfer of health information by educating the patients and encouraging them to search for related information. Knowledge of patient information seeking behavior can provide health and health information experts with valuable information used to improve the patients' health. Although due to the abundance of health information, it is easily possible to prevent some chronic diseases, many people lose their lives or suffer serious complications from these diseases due to lack of knowledge about prevention methods. Therefore informing people about the progress of these diseases and useful prevention methods is of outmost importance. Investigating the patients' information seeking behavior and identifying their information seeking patterns can provide us with useful strategies for effective transfer of information to the patients, thus improving the patients' self-management and prevent progression of their disease. The aim of the current study is to introduce models and theories related to information seeking behavior of patients.
  12,146 5,307 8
Knowledge and practices of school teacher regarding disaster management
Joshi Sonopant Ganpatrao
April-June 2014, 2(2):98-102
Introduction: Developing countries suffer major losses due to disasters. Reducing disaster losses is a fundamental goal for most governments. School teachers must be aware of disasters and its consequences to tackle the disasters at school. Aims: An exploratory study was conducted to assess knowledge and self-expressed practices regarding disaster management among secondary school teachers at selected schools of Pune city. Materials and Methods: A non-experimental research design was used. Five hundred and forty secondary school teachers were selected by purposive sampling technique. Survey was conducted using a structured interview questionnaire. Results: Findings revealed that mean knowledge score was 15.9 (53%) and mean practice score was 7.05 (47%). There was moderate positive correlation between knowledge score and practice score (r = 0.54). Conclusions: Study concluded that that teachers knowledge and self-expressed practices were not at satisfactory level. Capability building among teachers is utmost necessary.
  12,763 847 -
Assessment of disaster risk reduction knowledge of school teachers in Nepal
Gangalal Tuladhar, Ryuichi Yatabe, Ranjan Kumar Dahal, Netra Prakash Bhandary
January-March 2015, 3(1):20-27
Background: Nepal is a Himalayan mountainous country and it is extremely vulnerable to various natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, windstorms, droughts and other ecological hazards. Every year, the disaster statistics of Nepal are awful which always motivate and justify the urgent need of disaster risk reduction (DRR) works in Nepal. The World Disaster Reduction Campaign for 2006-2007 (Disaster Risk Reduction begins at school) has started various initiatives worldwide to make school safer from disaster and Nepal has also started to include disaster education in school as its program of mainstreaming the disaster risk reduction in education sector. In this context, few education programs for disaster risk reduction were already initiated in Nepal and few positive results were already documented. However, evaluation of the real ground scenario from independent research is still lacking. Aim: This research aims to explore existing knowledge of school teachers in Nepal about disaster risk reduction. Materials and Methods: Altogether 106 teachers from 19 districts of Nepal were interviewed and various questions related to disaster information, disaster knowledge, readiness, awareness, adaptation, and risk perception were asked to the teachers. The school principal, or the vice-principal or the assistant principal is selected for the interview. Their respond on DRR issues certainly help to accumulate realistic scenarios of DRR among education leaders of Nepal. They were 13% of female and 87% of male participants. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis, such as histogram analysis, distribution analysis, bivariate correlations and independent sample t-tests were conducted to examine the relationship between teachers and their knowledge on key DRR issues related dependent variables. Result and Conclusion: Finding of this independent research confirmed that initiatives taken for DRR in education sectors of Nepal is not enough and still teachers are not fully aware of DRR issues. The research also found that teachers are not well informed of elements in disaster risk and related knowledge of DRR. In Nepal, the DRR education must be promoted to communities through the well-groomed school teachers to reduce disaster risk in community and to establish disaster safe society.
  8,629 902 1
SWOT analysis of an Earthquake mock drill: A case study
Raman Sharma, Meenakshi Sharma, Ram Singh, Vipin Koushal
July-September 2014, 2(3):142-146
Introduction: Chandigarh, also called city beautiful, located at the foot hills of great Himalayas lies in the high earthquake prone zone (Zone IV). Since historical times the area has experienced many quakes of magnitude 6 and above and is vulnerable in future. Thus, the present study exercise was done in one of the multispecialty tertiary level hospital of North India to evaluate a hospital preparedness to overcome any disaster. Methodology: To conduct the drill, administrative block of the hospital was specifically chosen. Mock drill was executed in three phases viz. Pre disaster briefing, Emergency response practice and Post disaster evaluation. One day before prior to the drill, the whole staff was familiarized with preparedness plans and expectations. Results: On the day of drill, warning siren was activated in the morning (10:32 AM) for one minute simulating period of shaking. Whole staff quickly left their chairs, hid under their tables or safer places. After one minute time, siren was put off; rest of the stuck staff ran out and moved away from building to the evacuation place. Within minutes rescue teams (police control vans, fire fighting vehicles and ambulances) arrived. Whole area was cordoned off immediately. They rescued out the injured ones and ambulances shifted them to the hospital. Fire fighting tenders put off the fire in one of the engulfed in fire. Electric supply of the whole block was cut off. Critical patients were given first aid at the site and later were shifted to hospital for further management. In a three hours exercise, a total of fifteen injured were rescued. In the Post Disaster evaluation roles and responsibilities and feedback was taken from staff. Measures were started to plug the gaps found in the exercise. Conclusion: Though, it is a first such drill conducted in a Hospital scenario in the region, such drills need to be conducted regularly based on an all-hazards approach and involving patients from patient care areas also.
  8,300 435 1
Statistical study of human casualty due to major natural hazards in India
Prabhaker Mishra, Chandra M Pandey, Uttam Singh, Gopal K Panda, Ranjana Kar, Vishal Sharma
April-June 2016, 4(2):67-70
Introduction: India is a country of South Asia. Due to its specific location, it is frequently affected by various hazards and disasters. Objective: In this study, an attempt has been made to discuss the individual as well as comparative hazard's related human deaths in India. Methodology: Data of human casualty of 6 major natural hazards, those are frequently occurring in India have been analyzed using secondary data of 1965-2014. Data were collected from the website of National Disaster Management Authority, New Delhi. For comparisons of human deaths among/between hazards, Kruskal-Wallis Htest/multiple comparisons were used. Results: Floods have the highest number of casualty years (45 years) while earthquake reported minimum events years (19). Median human casualty was recorded, which was the highest by flood (1027) followed by epidemics (265) and extreme temperature (264). Human casualty was highest in flood (31%) followed by storms (25%), earthquakes (24%), epidemics (10%), extreme temperature (8%), and landslides (2%). Kruskal-Wallis Htest, result shows that difference in human casualty distributions among hazards was highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In India, despite many preventive measures for natural hazards and disasters, its annual, as well as decadal human casualties, are still high. Increasing coping capacity of the people which is a most important ways of reducing vulnerability.
  8,313 322 -
Food security and household coping strategies during disasters in Bangladesh
Edris Alam
July-September 2017, 5(3):51-56
Bangladesh is currently ranked as one of the world's most disaster-prone countries. Approximately 97% of the total land area and all inhabitants are at risk of multiple hazards including tropical cyclones, earthquakes, floods, droughts, riverbank, and coastal erosion. Food security is a challenge when a disaster heavily affects an area. The main aim of this research is to analyze how households themselves attempted to cope with food during major disaster events in Bangladesh. To achieve the objectives of this research, data on disasters and coping strategies for food were collected from the Government of Bangladesh and nongovernmental organizations' publications, local histories, journal articles in the peer-reviewed literature, books, newspapers, magazines, annual reports, and online hazard databases. The findings suggest that affected household undertook several food coping strategies through their available resources and traditional social networks following disaster events. It was noted that coping strategies depend on types, severity and time of disaster and sociodemographic characteristics of the affected households. In general, the poor, agricultural, and fishing communities whose livelihood means located in hazardous locations are found to adopt least preferable coping strategies for food during and following disaster occurrence. Household resilient for food security could be improved through providing access to food for all class of people and undertaking preparedness and increasing household level capacity building program.
  6,355 1,725 -
Investigation of mobile clinics and their challenges
Shirin Abbasi, Hamid Mohajer, Rahele Samouei
January-March 2016, 4(1):1-5
Introduction: Given the importance of medical services and health care in societies and the difficulty of accessing suitable health services for people living in remote locations. Aim: The goal of this study reviewed the challenges faced when creating mobile clinics to understand the challenges and provide accessible and feasible medical care in remote locations. Methods: This study used Review method to search for Persian and international articles between years 2004 and 2014 with keywords mobile specialized clinics, mobile clinic, health care, and mobile health care in credible websites and databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Web of Sciences, and extract the report the relevant information from these articles. Results: Mobile clinics are an important proposal in health and medical systems and provide advantages such as accessibility, variety of services, and the possibility of providing health care for remote or underprivileged locations and during disasters while having disadvantages such as structural, procedural and financial problems, lacking certain tools and specializations and unwillingness of people for using these clinics. Conclusion: Given the strengths of mobile clinics in provision a variety of medical services and disease prevention, the possibility of contacting other medical centers in order to improve the quality of services and reduction of costs, these clinics are able to answer some of the medical needs of people and their weaknesses can be reduced with the help of proper laws, planning and a feedback system in order to determine the quality of services. It is possible to improve the effectiveness of these clinics and provide services that are in line with the needs of the target population.
  7,015 619 1
Radio frequency identification and rescue victims in earthquake
Batool Akbari, Sima Ajami
October 2015, 3(5):1-5
Radio frequency identification (RFID) system has been successfully applied to the areas of manufacturing, supply chain, agriculture, transportation, healthcare, and services. The RFID is already used to track and trace the victims in a disaster situation. Data can be collected in real time and be immediately available to emergency personnel and saves time by the RFID. The aim of this study was to express the role of the RFID technology in an earthquake to rescue victims. This study was a unsystematic review which the literature search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, databases, and also search engines available at Google, Google Scholar. We employed the following keywords and their combinations; RFID, the victim, disaster, rescue, and earthquake in the searching areas of titles, keywords, abstracts, and full texts. This article presents two aspects of usage RFID; advantages and barriers. More than 60 articles were assessed, and 39 of them selected based on their relevancy. This literature review helps define the concept of “Tracking victims via RFID” (in terms of both advantages and barriers) as the new technology in the present age.
  3,255 4,083 -
Preventive maintenance of medical equipment in Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran 2013
Parivash Alikhani, Hamid Ganji, Mehdi Abtahi, Sahar Vesal, Beheshteh Naghdi
October-December 2013, 1(4):217-220
Introduction: The role of medical devices is increasing every day. So, researchers of this study attempted to help managers and employers by introducing latest medical equipment states and implementing a scientist and accurate method in P.M. for medical equipment. Materials and Methods: This research is an analytical descriptive study and has been performed cross sectional. All medical equipment owned by Alzahra medical center are used in this study by counting method. In this research, we processed 1520 medical equipment, and finally added 1000 medical equipment into P.M. system. We categorized the equipment into 83 categories in 4 categories: Capital/Vital/Scarce/Versatile. In the second stage, we designed a specialized checklist for every category. Finally we completed P.M. instructions for all of the devices based on device's catalogues and biomedical expert's information. Results: Alzahra hospital had 992 pcs equipment consist on: Capital and sensitive (7 pcs)/Vital (11 pcs)/Scarce (49 pcs)/Versatile (636 pcs)/Vital and Scarce (2 pcs)/Scarce and Capital (13 pcs) Vital and Versatile (194 pcs)/Capital and Versatile (17 pcs)/Vital and Capital and Versatile (38 pcs). Status of P.M. system is: Versatile 36%, Scarce 36%, Vital 66% and Capital devices 51%. Discussion: The total of status of P.M. system is Less than 70% comparison of good condition. One of our big achievements in this research was collecting and conducting P.M. for 532 biomedical equipment in 19 types and 28 brands. We conducted these P.M. for Alzahra Medical center and it's exist for their staff and operations.
  6,527 615 -
Silica exposure in the glass industry and human health risk assessment
Beheshteh Jebelli, Iran Ghazi, Amir Mahamoodzadeh, Elham Ghazanchaei
July-September 2015, 3(3):151-155
Introduction: Among adverse effects in mines and industries, silica dust often been the subject of many controversies. Its severe and incurable side effects call for special attention to as well as assessment and control in workplaces. This study aims to determine the rate of silica concentration in the breathing zones of the glass industry in a comparison to standard limits in order to improve the safety of workers exposed to these particles. Materials and Methods: Being conducted in a glass factory in Tehran, this research employed a sampling method to measure the silica dust diffusion in six consecutive years from 2005 to 2010. The most effective method of dust level measurement in a workplace is to take samples in the breathing zone of workers exposed to it. In the subject factory, the sampling was performed in four sectors with the highest level of occupational exposure to the respirable dust. (1) Material charging unit, Excavator Operator. (2) Miscellaneous material weighing Operator (mixer). (3) Material charging, loading unit Operator. (4) Discharge (unloading) zone. The silica compound sampling and measur was conducted via the method by National Institute of US Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). By this method, the silica particles in the air were collected on the sorbent tube containing activated carbon (coconut shell) SKC-USA No. 226-01 and the sampling pump Model 222 ml/count, SKC with a flow rate of two liters per minute in the active method for 30 minutes. Then, observing necessary conditions and the chain of cold (Stored at 4΀C), the samples were transferred to the laboratory. The breathing zone samples were also collected from the four mentioned sectors by the sampling pump. Samples were analyzed with the Flame Ionization Detector, when they were transferred to the laboratory by Gas Chromatography Apparatus with the Flame. Results: Time-weighted a Average (TWA) exposure was at its highest level in 2009 and at its lowest level in 2008. Findings of the study also revealed that the amount of environmental silica dust threshold limit value in the material charging Unit of loading and Excavator Operators in the discharge zone was higher than the threshold limit value. After determining the dispersion density of suspended silica particles, TLV, TWA, and the non-cancer risk ratio of the particles in the mentioned sectors, control strategies and corrective suggestions were proposed. Conclusions: Results showed that, the silica concentration in the breathing zone of the glass industry was higher than the threshold limit value. Silica is a carcinogenic material causes chronic respiratory diseases and silicosis, therefore it is recommended to observe the safety principles and use wet silica in stead. The concentration of silica is at its highest level in the loading and unloading units, thus the engineering and managing controls should be utilized to avoid the direct exposure to these suspended particles. Moreover, the workers in these sectors should be well-trained regarding the exposure to silica and use of individual protective equipment.
  5,606 404 1
Risk management to control needle stick injuries: Case report of Hazrate Zahra Hospital (2010-2012)
Masoud Ferdosi, Mehrnoosh Torkan, Shirin Abbasi
April-June 2014, 2(2):122-126
Needle stick injuries are one the most common types of injuries caused by infected sharps which threaten all staff employed at medical system. Prevention of needle stick injuries should be considered as one of the Hospital's strategic programs for authorities. The Hospital established the risk management in controlling needle stick injuries as preventive measures before injuries occurs. These measures include engineering controls, administrative controls, reviewing occupational hazards, proper corrective measures after injuries, calculation of manpower arrangement standard in high risk personnel, and improvement of work processes. This case report studies the performance of Hazrate Zahra Hospital of Isfahan during the years 2010-2012 in the field of needle stick risk management. Sampling was not performed and 71 employees injured were investigated. For reporting and collecting data, a questionnaire was used. Forms collected by the Infection Control Committee Administrator were examined and the results were analyzed using root cause analysis (RCA). The 3-year data were finally analyzed by T-test and Chi-square test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Software. Based on 3-year data, findings showed that there was a significant relation between employees' age and injuries. Also, there was a significant relationship between shift sequences and the number of injuries (P > 0.05). Findings showed that nurses and service personnel had the highest number of injuries with 22.5%. The results of the 3-year study show that the hospital has been able to reduce needle stick injuries by establishing strategies and have the risks under control.
  5,226 354 -
Alarming rates of violence against women in Indonesia: United nations population fund
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
July-September 2017, 5(3):75-76
  5,127 426 -
Presentation of a fuzzy model for the crisis management during an earthquake in a Tehran Bus Company
Amir Mahmoudzadeh, Peiman Sanandaji
October-December 2016, 4(4):109-113
Introduction: Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 9 million in the city and 16 million in the wider metropolitan area, Tehran is the largest city and urban area of Iran, the second-largest city in western ASIA, and the third-largest city in the Middle East. It is ranked 29 th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area, and the urban planning in crisis is the critical part of city management. Materials and Methods: In this study, we review literature on crisis management theories, approaches, and models of crisis management and the importance of this issue in Tehran public transport by extracting the functional components of transport management by the times of crisis. A research in Tehran Bus Company as one of the most important factors within urban transport during the years 2012 and 2013 conducted to assess the human impact among various factors, logistics, and factors related to buildings and inventory management through the use of expert opinions and research library and taking into account the behavioral patterns of residents and users of municipal services and various crisis scenarios. Results: It conducts behavioral model of urban transport services (Tehran Bus Company) and the strategic model in three stages. Information, technology, and the development of model behavior after the earthquake, the current situation from three perspectives, and single company-fleet-building of human resources ultimately provide a model for crisis management phase during an earthquake in the city of Tehran bus. We want to know how we can improve this mode of public transportation during an earthquake. Conclusion: The main purpose of this study is finding the main and underlying features of crisis management that in line with the cited purpose, and general framework for crisis management during earthquakes was established. According to the results of this study after determination of the strengths and weaknesses' points of the organization in crisis management, the organization can identify suitable approach and appropriate strategies for crisis management during earthquake and employ best practices in order to enhance crisis management in the organization and maintain their strengths and reinforce weaknesses and destroy barriers that reduce crisis management in organization.
  1,929 3,500 -
Multi hazards risk assessment, a new methodology
Leila Eshrati, Amir Mahmoudzadeh, Masoud Taghvaei
April-June 2015, 3(2):79-88
Background: Multi-hazards pose a serious threat to human life. It can cause considerable damages. The evaluation of the expected losses due to multi-hazards requires a risk assessment. Multi-hazards risk assessment allow the identification of the most endangered areas and suggest where further detailed studies have to be carried out. Aim: This study aims to give a new methodology for Multi-hazard risk assessment that makes easier the comparability analysis of vulnerability for different hazards and accounts for possible triggering (domino) effects. Materials and Methods: Methods used in this paper are based on theoretical approach and documentation. Two types of hazards will be assessed, namely earthquake and fire following earthquake. Statistical Analysis: Semi-quantitative and quantitative approach would assess risk rates at both regional and local levels. Result: In this study, representation of a new methodology for multi-hazards risk assessment includes determination of a model with parameters, consideration of the indicator-based pattern of vulnerability assessment that selected of all the relevant indicators and presented new classification of indicators based on comparison to different hazards and possible triggering (domino) effects. This means a potential multi-hazard indicator could be higher than the simple aggregation of single risk indicators calculation. Conclusion: The focus is on establishing a general overview of the emerging issues, and indicating how hazard relations can be considered in multi-hazard studies. The hazard relation is identified and studied by means of a new method and the overlay of hazard areas to determine overlaps in final multi-hazards map.
  4,696 587 -
Quality of health care in primary health care system: A reflection from Indian state
Virendra Kumar, Anindya Jayanta Mishra
July-September 2015, 3(3):136-140
Quality in primary health care services is a key component in reducing all-cause mortality and disability cases. Quality in primary health care services is associated with adequacy of the features of primary health care and provision of preventive and promotive services. The purpose of the current study is to summarise the quality of primary health care in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and to identify important barriers that hamper quality service achievement. This review study was carried out in the year 2014 by searching Science Direct, PubMed and JSTOR, official reports and books. The search was conducted using the keywords primary health care, quality of primary health care, health indicators and barriers in health care delivery along with the term Uttar Pradesh and India. Studies were included if they address these pre-defined aspects of primary health care and published after the introduction of National Rural Health Mission in India. Therefore, studies, conducted before 2005 and not covered the aspects of primary health care are excluded from this review study. A total of 27 articles met the inclusion criteria out of 176 searched studies. The study results indicate that the quality of primary health care services is abysmally poor in primary health care setting of UP. The state has some of the deplorable health outcomes among the Indian states as consequences of poor quality in health care services. There are numerous barriers that impede quality services achievement and service utilisation.
  4,737 531 5
Historical and preventive aspect of biological warfare
Shrikant Mishra, Bhavesh Trikamji
October-December 2014, 2(4):204-209
History has witnessed several civilizations and nations fall prey to bioterrorism. With the rise of new technology, more sophisticated weaponry is being instituted by nations worldwide. Countries spend significant revenue in research and development of their defense infrastructure. We take a look at the evolution of bioterrorism to its current state today. The data were collected from literature review of various online sources such as PubMed, EMBASE, Google scholar, UCLA, and USC libraries over a 2 years period in 2013 and 2014 at Los Angeles, California, USA. We discuss the historical aspects and preventive strategies of biological warfare. We characterize the various kinds of biological weapons and their role in spreading terrorism. In emergency situations where every second count, being equipped with management strategies for biological warfare will help in preventing further damage. This review aims at preparing the physicians for disaster management and disease control.
  3,573 1,519 -
Health issues among MIC exposed population 30 years post MIC disaster at Bhopal
Brajendra Mishra
July-September 2015, 3(3):115-128
Bhopal the capital city of Madhya Pradesh suffered an accidental toxic gas disaster 30 years back. The gases released included mainly Methyl Iso Cyanate (MIC), Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and Carbon Mono Oxide (CO). The left over stockpile and products of reactions posed threat to environmental contamination and gases lead to heavy toll on human and animal lives and injured people with long term consequences. People believed that the toxicants could cause irreversible damage to human health. Present review article is based on extensive review of the large number of research publications and reports appeared over last 29 years following MIC gas leak at Bhopal. The results of extensive review of literature reveal that fear of carcinogenesis, immune compromise status was unfounded and congenital malformations was not proved epidemiologically as well as experimentally. And as on today, thirty years' post disaster only three health problems as Reactive Airways Disease Syndrome, Pulmonary Fibrosis and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder need further attention, that too for their management. The result of present review also indicates that by and large no research need seems to emerge. However, to be sure, author recommend that a cohort of gas exposed people who were given Thiosulphate injection (N = 18000) and their exposed family members may be assembled and their health status be examined through a cross sectional study to come to final conclusion.
  4,506 340 -
Barcode medication administration and patient safety: A case study in Iran
Asghar Ehteshami, Marzieh Azizi, Niloofar Amini, Tahere Fazeli, Mahtab Kasaei
July-September 2014, 2(3):186-191
Introduction: Patient safety is one important aspect of healthcare. Medication errors are among factors threatening such safety. Medication errors not only endanger the healthcare environment but also impose high costs on health system. Therefore, this study investigated the association between nurses' knowledge of Barcode Medication Administration (BCMA) and its implementation at AL-Zahra Academic Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This is an applied descriptive analytical (association) study. The research society included nurses working in different wards of AL-Zahra Hospital with a sample of 242 persons based on Morgan table (95% Confidence Level). A questionnaire with 45 closed questions and a 43 item checklist, the content validity, and reliability of which was confirmed by professors and through Re-Test method and Cronbach's alpha measurement of 0.774, respectively. Data collection was performed through direct reference by researchers, and findings were analyzed using central tendencies and dispersion parameters of descriptive statistics and Pearson Chi-Square tests of analytical statistics. Findings: Findings indicated that the rate of nurses' knowledge of the BCMA and its implementation in AL-Zahra Hospital was 63.1 and 43.9%, respectively, and there was an association of 0.805 between two variables which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The rate of nurses' knowledge of the BCMA is relatively favorable, its implementation is not desirable, and the association between two variables is strong but insignificant in AL-Zahra Hospital.
  4,474 367 -
Health impact of chennai floods 2015: Observations in a medical relief camp
Nancy Angeline, Suguna Anbazhagan, A Surekha, Sushil Joseph, Pretesh R Kiran
April-June 2017, 5(2):46-48
Background: During the year 2015, Chennai and the South Indian coast experienced devastating floods due to unprecedented rains. Indiscriminate damage to housing, communication and transport networks, and health facilities ensued affecting the lives of thousands of people. Objective: To assess the morbidity profile of patients attending the medical camps conducted at Chennai during the postflood period. Methodology: In our study, the investigators with their health team conducted camps in Thiruvallur - one of the worst affected districts during the floods between November and December 2015. Data were collected regarding age, gender, and presenting health problems. Total number of patients seen in camps was 5633. Results: It was observed that among people who came to the camp, common health problems were as follows - 46.84% had acute respiratory tract infections, 24.87% with acute gastroenteritis, 18.6% had fever, and 14.41% with skin problems. Conclusion: Due to provision of safe drinking water and epidemic prevention measures, epidemic outbreaks have been averted. However, strengthening of existing health care systems is required to handle the burden of acute gastrointestinal and respiratory infections during disasters such as floods.
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Hurricane Mitch and Honduras: An illustration of population vulnerability
William C Smith
January-March 2013, 1(1):54-58
In 1998, Hurricane Mitch, the fourth strongest Atlantic Ocean hurricane in recorded history, destroyed much of Honduras. Hardest hit were more vulnerable populations of the rural hillside and the urban shanty towns. In the 20 years prior to Hurricane Mitch, a series of neoliberal policies shifted the tax burden to the poor and focused resources on export crops, forcing subsistence farmers to the less arable hillside and leading to deforestation. These moves left the already marginalized in a precarious position when Hurricane Mitch struck as topsoil was washed away and mudslides destroyed hillside farms. Additionally, gendered patterns of privilege were obvious. Men were encouraged to migrate to work leaving women to restore the farm, care for the children, and tend to the elderly. As disaster management is centered on preparation multiple lessons can be learned. First, in preparation multiway information systems need to include actors from the local level and embrace those marginalized by society. Second, women need to be seen as assets not victims and their well-being need to be taken into consideration outside of the family construct. And third, reconstruction effort need to be about building better not faster.
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Steps towards sustainable and resilient disaster management in Japan: Lessons from Cuba
Kenji Isayama, Naoya Ono
April-June 2015, 3(2):54-60
Cuba is a hurricane-prone island in the Caribbean. Hurricanes are endemic to Cuban history. A major hurricane occurs in the country every few years, causing the destruction of homes but very few deaths. Though Cuba has limited economic resources, its healthcare system has managed to solve some problems that the Cuban population itself was unaware of. Furthermore, Cuba has an excellent record with respect to disaster preparedness and response, involving warnings and evacuations, in which governmental control of the population and the efficient organization of society by the state are effectively used to minimize the potential morbidity and mortality from hurricanes. Their unusual healthcare and disaster resilience strategy addresses these problems in ways developed based on Cuba's peculiar political and economic history. However, these systems created in terms of healthcare teams for all, an early focus on prevention and clear attention to community resilience may also inform progress in Japan. This review was conducted using resources from libraries and search engines using specific keyword combinations. The 50 most relevant publications from 2002 to 2014 are reviewed in detail. Though Cuba certainly faces many challenges such as an unsustainable conventional healthcare system, an aging society and economic vulnerability, Cuban disaster risk management incorporates preventive principles, education and community resilience. Similarly, Japanese disaster management should shift focus from emergency response to preventive strategies such as those in the Cuban disaster management plan and Hyogo Framework for Action. Moving towards more sustainable and resilient disaster management in Japan is essential.
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