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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 120-125

Emergency police station location to provide municipal services after earthquake (Case study: Kerman)


1 Department of Management, Shakhes Pajouh Research Institute, Isfahan, Iran
2 Research and Technology of Shakhes Pajouh Research Institute, Isfahan, Iran
3 MSc Geology in Crisis Management Center of the Municipality of Kerman, Iran

Date of Web Publication27-Dec-2016

Correspondence Address:
Masoud Mojarad Kahani
Department of Management, Research Institute of Shakhes Pajouh, Isfahan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2347-9019.196772

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  Abstract 

Background: Proper planning and selection of places to construct emergency stations (temporary) is very important in reducing the effects of crises. Emergency stations must be established in proper areas with perfect opportunity compared to areas where the crises risk is further to act effectively in the shortest time and provide various municipal services. Aims: In this study, we examined the emergency station location in order to provide municipal services during natural disasters (earthquake). Then, we determined suitable places for construction of centers based on principles and location factors. Subjects and Methods: The research method is descriptive-analytic study based on approach and nature; also, it is applied in terms of study aim. The statistical population consisted of specialists and experts with experience in this area and study area is Kerman city. We used geographical information system (GIS) maps to access the options. Results: Eighty-one final options of emergency police stations were proposed for Kerman after conducting the necessary investigations in ArcMap and combining maps, and then we prioritized them in three groups through combining the corresponding subcriteria weights of GIS.

Keywords: Crisis, earthquake, emergency police station, Kerman, services


How to cite this article:
Kahani MM, Ghazi I, Akbari ZN, Hosseini Z. Emergency police station location to provide municipal services after earthquake (Case study: Kerman). Int J Health Syst Disaster Manage 2016;4:120-5

How to cite this URL:
Kahani MM, Ghazi I, Akbari ZN, Hosseini Z. Emergency police station location to provide municipal services after earthquake (Case study: Kerman). Int J Health Syst Disaster Manage [serial online] 2016 [cited 2021 Mar 2];4:120-5. Available from: https://www.ijhsdm.org/text.asp?2016/4/4/120/196772


  Introduction Top


City is center of all cultural, social, and economic attractions and since, nowadays, cities are the largest human gatherings centers, they are always faced with crises. [1] In general, crisis or disaster refers to a situation that is resulted from natural or accidental phenomenon and, in turn, leads to human damages and casualties, physical property damages, and economic disruptions on a massive scale. [2] Natural disasters have a special position among the most important and dangerous crises that threaten human life. [3] Natural events are phenomena which have exposed human life at all ages to damages; in urban areas, common harmful effects due to natural disasters include a combination of physical destructions and disruption of urban elements functioning. [4]

Different types of crises always have had important implications for safety. They have long been an integral part of social life and day-to-day and their number has been increased daily. [5] Since, one of the most important functions of governments is to establish order and security in society and this mission is the duty of police Islamic Republic of Iran, then, the police must do sum measures especially in times of natural disasters such as protection of affected area, control the entry and exit of persons, vehicles and goods, protection of state property, private and public sectors, protect people and government help, create order in affected area and ward off any evil people for, traffic control in and around the damaged area. [6] In fact, police is a powerful force of state and country due to extent of activities and variety of tasks around the country, so that it quickly present at event area when any incident occurs. If they get appropriate education, preparedness and equipment, it will be a source of significant effects so that conducting proper entrusted missions they will help the victims. [7] In the event of natural disasters, police centers that are responsible for order and security, must establish emergency stations in points which are close to disaster place and must have good dispersion to offer their services more effectively.

Kerman is vulnerable to natural disasters, especially earthquakes due to geographical features and accident-prone. Since most areas of Kerman are located on earthquake-prone faults, it has caused that the city is always faced with earthquakes threats. Police force is one of the first groups that responses and controls process upon the occurrence of a crisis. Therefore, emergency stations must be established in areas that likelihood of crises is more to act effectively in the shortest possible time. Therefore, appropriate and optimal location of emergency stations can play important and crucial role in providing effective and timely municipal services during natural disasters. In this study, we examine how the emergency station location (provisional) is for municipal services provision during natural disasters (with emphasis on earthquake) and determine the appropriate places for establishment of these centers based on principles and factors of location in Kerman.

Mekaniki et al. in a study entitled "The optimal location of military and police bases using Analytical Hierarchy Model in GIS (Case study: Birjand)," identified and evaluated the factors influencing the location of police and military centers; then, they prioritized Birjand lands for military bases using geographical information system (GIS) and analytic hierarchy process and obtainig the desired information. According to final maps, most military and police centers are situated in good and average areass with relatively good position except other centers in Southwest of Birjand. [1]

Razavy Nejad, in a study entitled, "The role of passive defense in location and security of urban Police centers," evaluated the safety of Mashhad police active stations based on principles and considerations of passive defense. The study results showed that Resalat 24 police station obtained first rank with score of 0.447 in terms of security among Mashhad police stations. [8]

Coskun and Erol, in a study entitled "Optimization Model of locating and determining the size of emergency medical services stations," provided an integer optimization model to make decisions on location and service stations and to minimize the total cost of system. The model has been tested for medical service system stations of Adana area in Turkey. The model can provide an optimal solution in a reasonable time for large cities with a 130 areas. [9]

Zhang and Brown in a study entitled "Police patrol zoning methods and assessment of simulation based on model and GIS," studied the relationship between zoning parameters and dependent variables and evaluated the simulation of police patrol functions. In this research, patrol location programs were examined and executed by parameters method and using a simulation model based on Java program produced in an environmental GIS. The relationship between zoning parameters and the dependent variable was studied. The study includes a case study on Charlottesville, VA, USA police department. The simulation results show that patrols can be better compared to location solutions. [10]

Theoretical foundations of research

Earthquake in Iran

Iran is located on seismic and active part of Alpine-Himalayan belt. Several earthquakes occur annually in this seismic belt of Southern European and East and Southeast Asia. More than 82 earthquakes has occurred in Iran from 1899 to 2003, where 45 earthquakes were with magnitude above 5 Richter scale, 23 earthquakes with magnitude above 6 Richter scale and 11 earthquakes with magnitude above 7 Richter scale. Such earthquake experiences with human casualties, and economic losses in Iran areas reveal the necessity of paying attention to reduced effects of earthquakes and seismic risks. [11]

Roles and position of military and police forces in crisis management

Crisis management organization cannot act focused in times of crisis and uses the capabilities of other agencies in this regard and the role of other organizations and institutions in this regard is necessary. Today, armed and police forces are among institutions and organizations working in the field of crisis management. However, the most important task of military organizations is to deal with enemy attacks, but in times of domestic crises, military organizations will be able to attend the scene and conduct relief actions as soon as possible because of having convenient air, land and sea facilities and organized and trained manpower. Considering the above facts, there is special capabilities among police and armed forces which are outstanding compared to other institutions; these abilities make indispensable police presence at the scene of crisis. These capabilities include:

  • Having special equipment such as helicopters, engineering machinery and equipment with special usage, and so on
  • Command and control capabilities
  • Use special and trained forces
  • Rapid and spatial distribution of categories into geographic regions of country
  • Possibility of rapid air transportation to help affected areas. [12]
Formation of emergency police stations in crisis times

Emergency station refers to centers that are created in special times and conditions and considering the nature and importance of issue. This type of centers is established usually at time of natural and unnatural disasters to provide security and order besides fixed stations (normal station). The number of these centers depends on extent and severity of crisis and the intended location in order to create such centers is based on indicators such as population density, the likelihood of crime, city entrance and exit, the closeness extent to classified centers.

The most important factor that is considered in forming emergency stations in times of crisis is inherent duty of armed force including order and security. In this context, this type of stations are formed in order to restore order and security, security services, traffic ease, cooperation with other organizations and institutions involved in crisis, dealing with rumors, control the city entrances and exits, protection of classified and sensitive centers and so caused. [13]


  Subjects and Methods Top


The research method is descriptive-analytic based on approach and nature. Because it explains the features and characteristics of status as well as the reasons of problem and its dimensions; moreover it is used to meet human needs, optimize tools, methods, objects and models for development and promotion of human life and welfare using fundamental knowledge. The study population consisted of experts from municipalities, Red Crescent, experts of police, crisis management experts and professors of this field in Kerman. According to a few experts in Kerman, there was no need to sampling based on professors and advisors views and 22 questionnaires were distributed among all experts in Kerman. A total of twenty questionnaires were properly completed, restored and analyzed. Library and field methods using a variety of tools related to theme were used to collect data. The majority of information using maps and GIS information layers of Kerman (Center the Crisis Management) has been collected.

In this study, the police stations points are entered suing GPS system and necessary information are identified and entered to analyze the geographic environment information; then, maps with different layers are prepared and edited in ArcGIS. In the next phase, the maps are entered into ArcMap software, descriptive data are entered into database and then, attributed to effects. So, GIS database is stored with various information layers; when database is completed, spatial and nonspatial information are combined and data analysis is done in ArcGIS and data are analyzed using GIS tools and functions.

Findings

Location criteria of Kerman emergency stations

Compatibility


One of the main objectives of urban land use planning is to locate various applications in city and separate incompatible applications from each other. [14] In other words, the application must be within compatible applications. The compatibility subcriteria for optimal location of emergency stations at the time of natural disasters (earthquake) include: Hospitals centers, commercial centers, police stations (healthy station), population density.

Accessibility

This index is used to measure how it is easy to reach a place. Access type is measured based on space and time distance from one place to another. Accessibility subcriteria to locate emergency station optimally at the time of natural disasters include: city entrance, first grade way (the main way), the second grade way (secondary way) and third grade way (local way).

Safety

The safety refers to security of emergency station establishment against dangers of crisis which can occur at the base or around the base. [15] Safety subcriteria to locate emergency stations suitably at the time of natural disasters include Fueling stations, gas pressure regulating stations, high-voltage power pylons.

Required information layers

When the criteria and subcriteria of Kerman emergency stations location are identified, the information layers will be collected. So at this point, descriptive and spatial information must be collected to carry out emergency stations location. Regulation and limitations must be considered for each information layer of emergency station location to identify appropriate locations for establishment of stations. [Table 1] presents collected data o information layers and their criteria.
Table 1: Introduction on information layers and related procedures


Click here to view


Prepare the information layers

At this stage, the collected data on information layers are studied and prepared for required analysis. Therefore, image layers system and scale must be identical because data must be consistent with each other to perform the GIS analysis. Therefore, data preparation and edit, transform them containing all information for application and having suitable structure for analysis are necessary.

Prepare maps in geographical information system

In this stage, maps of each layer must be prepared after identifying and preparing all criteria and subcriteria layer information affecting on emergency stations location. The preparation of these maps include the construction of layers and weighting based on relative, positive and negative effects of criteria and subcriteria that play role in determining emergency stations location. Therefore, limitations and regulations of subcriteria are presented based on positive and negative effects of each parameter and considering the offered criteria and subcriteria, then, commands were written and performed in software. The data categorization related to subcriteria is shown in [Table 2] and [Table 3].
Table 2: Categorize emergency police station location indexes data based on importance


Click here to view
Table 3: Categorize population density index data based on importance


Click here to view


Create the final map

At this stage, the final map is displayed that is the result of combining criteria maps. The aim of this stage is to use weighted overlay analysis in ArcGIS for combination. The result of combining criteria maps using selected model is Raster map where pixel values represent the desirability or undesirability of location for establishment of emergency station. In other words, the higher pixel value shows the priority of location for stations establishment. For this purpose, we enter positive factors (health centers, police stations, population density, commercial centers, city entrance, first garde way, second grade way and local ways) and then negative factors (fuel stations, high-pressure electricity pylons and gas pressure reduction station) in Geographic Information System.

Actually, indices include a variety of facilities and risks that exist in current conditions of Kerman and can affect the emergency station locations. The map below is the result of combining output maps. According to the optimal distance of 1000 m between emergency stations, 1000 m buffers were created around healthy police stations to use the final map where the priorities of proposed locations are determined. Final map and 1000 m distances of emergency stations were obtained thorough combining the first, second and third priorities. According to the final map, the majority of city is located in areas with first and second priority except the West part of city that is located within police stations of 17, 22, and 23 [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Final and combined geographical information system map

Click here to view


The proposed options for emergency stations resulted of maps combination

In this study, 81 options (that have the highest scores in maps analysis and combination) are provided as proposed options for establishment of Kerman emergency stations after earthquake [Figure 2] and address and full details of each emergency station and their priority options are obtained. In this study, an emergency station is considered for each main and secondary entrance of city using the experts' views. Also, each police station (healthy police station) is considered as an emergency station at the time of natural disasters, particularly earthquakes, that has the task of providing municipal services. Each of offered options is prioritized through combining the weight of GIS subcriteria into three categories.
Figure 2: The final map of police and emergency police stations in Kerman

Click here to view



  Results and Discussion Top


Selecting the most suitable place in establishment of emergency police stations after disasters such as earthquake is one of the plans that are done in order to be prepared in dealing with natural disasters (earthquake). Therefore, proper planning and selection of places in constructing emergency stations is very important to reduce the effects of crisis. Therefore, in this study, we examine the emergency station location to provide municipal services during natural disasters (with emphasis on earthquake) and determined suitable locations for establishment of these centers based on compliance with location principles and factors. We used compatibility criteria (including subcriteria of medical centers, commercial centers, police stations, population density), access criteria (including subcriteria of city entrance, first grade way, second grade way and third grade way) and safety criteria (including subcriteria of refueling centers, gas pressure regulating stations, high voltage electricity pylons) in order to achieve emergency station options. We used GIS maps to access the options. Eighty-one final options of emergency stations were proposed for Kerman after conducting the necessary investigations in ArcMap and combining maps, and then we prioritized them in three groups through combining the corresponding subcriteria weights of GIS. According to the findings of the final map, the majority of city in places with first and second are located, except of the West city (area police centers 17 and 23) in the places third priority. In other words, the results indicate that emergency police station within police centers 11, 13, 16 (downtown), 19 (downtown), 22 (West city) and Haftbagh road entrance have the greatest importance and priority. Therefore, in order to planning for the establishment of emergency police station Probable disaster after the earthquake, the above mentioned places and regions have a higher priority. Also, other emergency police station That have selected less priority, Should In near future of reconstruction or change current location the Placed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Mekaniki C, Kavoosi OR, Ayvazeh M, Fakouri F. Optimal location of military and police bases using analytical hierarchy model in GIS (Case Study: Birjand). Security Knowledge of South Khorasan 2012;1:2-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
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Amiri A. Law enforcement and security consequences of natural disasters. J Regularity Security 2008;1:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Nesyani B. Earthquake Disaster Management in Urban Areas before Event Usig SDSS: A Case Study of Tabriz District 8. Master Thesis, Publicated by Industrial Management Institute of Eastern Azerbaijan Representation; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Pearson C, Clair J. Reframing Crisis Management. Academy of Management Review 1998;23:59-76.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Adeli A. Evaluate the performance of IRI police in maintaining order and security of bam, with a crisis management approach. J Secur Manage Stud 2012;7:254-81.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Chaluk G. Check the police measures in maintaining order and security after earthquake. J Regularity Security 2008;1:138-75.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Razavy Nejad M. The Passive Defense Role in Safety and Location of Urban Law Centers (Case Study: Mashhad Police), Master Thesis, Geopolitical Thesis of Mashhad Ferdowsi University; 2012. p. 3-65.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Coskun N, Erol R. An optimization model for locating and sizing emergency medical service stations. J Med Syst 2010;34:43-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Zhang Y, Brown DE. Police patrol districting method and simulation evaluation using agent-based model & GIS. J Secur Inf 2013;1:2-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Givechi S. Urban Planning in Order to Prevent and Reduce Accidents. Tehran: Publicated by Applied-High Education Institute of Iranian Red Crescent; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Parishan M, Mahdavi D. Geographical information system and its application in security-military management of crisis. J Police Hum Dev 2008;4:18.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Azodi V. The Creation of Emergency Stations in Natural Disasters, an Interview with Applied Research Institute Expert in Kerman Province Police Command Police and Faculty Member of Law and Social Studies; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Pourmohammadi M. The Role of GIS in Management and Rescue of Rural and Urban Settlement Residents (Case Study: Tabriz), the Second Scientific and Research Conference of Rescue Management; 2006. p. 2-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Shoja Iraqi M, Tavalaee S, Ziaeian P. Optimal location of crisis management support databases using GIS (Case Study: Tehran 6 th district). J Urban Reg Stud Res 2011;3:41-60.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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