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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2017
Volume 5 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 51-76

Online since Friday, February 9, 2018

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Food security and household coping strategies during disasters in Bangladesh p. 51
Edris Alam
Bangladesh is currently ranked as one of the world's most disaster-prone countries. Approximately 97% of the total land area and all inhabitants are at risk of multiple hazards including tropical cyclones, earthquakes, floods, droughts, riverbank, and coastal erosion. Food security is a challenge when a disaster heavily affects an area. The main aim of this research is to analyze how households themselves attempted to cope with food during major disaster events in Bangladesh. To achieve the objectives of this research, data on disasters and coping strategies for food were collected from the Government of Bangladesh and nongovernmental organizations' publications, local histories, journal articles in the peer-reviewed literature, books, newspapers, magazines, annual reports, and online hazard databases. The findings suggest that affected household undertook several food coping strategies through their available resources and traditional social networks following disaster events. It was noted that coping strategies depend on types, severity and time of disaster and sociodemographic characteristics of the affected households. In general, the poor, agricultural, and fishing communities whose livelihood means located in hazardous locations are found to adopt least preferable coping strategies for food during and following disaster occurrence. Household resilient for food security could be improved through providing access to food for all class of people and undertaking preparedness and increasing household level capacity building program.
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Geospatial landslide hazard zonation for district pauri garhwal, Uttarakhand, India, Using quantitative methods p. 57
Neelam Rawat, Devender Sharma, Durgesh Pant
Introduction: Landslides are one of the critical natural processes, which cause enormous damage to life and property..Uttarakhand Himalaya is vital to sustainity of region. This region is very fragile due to topographic and climatic condition. Landslides in the mountainous terrains are natural derivational processes and one of the most. There is a need for Landslide Hazard Zonation for identification of potential landslide areas. Keeping this in mind one hilly district, Pauri district of Uttarakhand, India was selected. Materials and Methods: The present study is an attempt towards development of a landslide model by using multi-criteria decision analysis in GIS and remote sensing techniques for landslide hazard zonation. The IRS LISS-4 satellite imageries, Survey of India topographical maps, and ancillary data were used as inputs to the study. The data layers of land use–land cover and geology were interpreted from satellite image and available ancillary data. Other raster thematic layers, i.e., slope, aspect, elevation, and drainage density, have been generated in Arc info three-dimensional analyst tool using ASTER DEM of 30 m resolution. A numerical rating scheme for the factors was developed for spatial data analysis in GIS. Results and Decision: Using high-resolution LISS-IV and Cartosat-2A, merged data of 2011–2012 landslides were mapped by visual interpretation of satellite image. A total of 167 landslides have been identified. Elevation map of Pauri district was prepared by classifying digital elevation model into 5 elevation categories. Distribution of landslides in different elevation categories is also done. Maximum landslides have occurred in elevation category (710–1134 m) and (185–709 m). Slope map has been generated and classifi ed into 6 slope classes, i.e. 0°–5°, 5°–10°, 10°–20°, 20°–30°, 30°–40°, and more than 40°. Distribution of landslides in different slope categories is also done. Maximum landslides have occurred in slopecategories (10°–20°), (20°–30°), and (30°–40°). Aspect map has been generated and classified into 8 aspect classes. Maximum landslides have occurred in aspect categories South-West (14.37%), South (35.97%), and South East (15.57%) directions. The Southern aspect (SW-S-SE) contributes to 65.91% of total landslides. Drainage density map has been generated from ASTER DEM using three-dimensional Analyst tool and classified into 6 classes, namely 0–2, 2–4, 4–6, 6–8, and more than 8 (km/sq.km). Geological map of Pauri district has been adopted from Geological map from Geological SOI. Rock types such as phyllites, quartzites, slates, siltstone, sandstones, graywacks, granitoids, alluvium, crystallines and metamorphics, and limestones are present in the district. Distribution of landslides in different drainage density categories is also done. Maximum landslides have occurred in drainage density category 2–4, 4–6, and 6–8 (km/sq.km). LULC map of Pauri was classified into various classes such as water body, forest scrub, wasteland/scrub, tree-clad, forest evergreen, agriculture land, built up, forest deciduous open, and forest deciduous dense/close. Maximum landslides have occurred in forest deciduous open category (84) followed by agriculture land (22), forest scrub (14), forest evergreen and forest deciduous dense/close (13 each), and water body. Conclusion: The above-mentioned 6 layers were integrated in the weighted overlay model of Arc Info and weights were assigned corresponding to landslide occurrence in these layers. The influence of the layer in causing landslide has also assigned. The final LHZ map generated after processing 6 themes. The final map has been classified into 3 categories, namely high, moderate, and low hazard categories. Of a total of 167 landslides, 110Landslides fall in the high HZ and 43 landslides fall in moderate HZ category while only 14 landslides fall in the low HZ category. 34.01% of the district falls under low HZ category and 40.73% falls under moderate HZ category while 25.26 under high HZ category. More layers need to be added in the model to obtain more precision. This map is not checked in the fi eld ground truth.
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Designing cardiovascular disease management model for drivers of Tehran During 2006–2015 p. 63
Majid Tajik, Fereidoun Nouhi, Mokhtar Malekpour, Akbar Nikpajoh, Komeil Mahjouri
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors among drivers due to the nature of the job, mostly in groups considered at high risk to design cardiovascular disease management model that is a necessity for our country. Methodology: This is an applied study in terms of objective, it is also a survey study. Data analysis method is correlational regression analysis. The main risk factors for cardiovascular disease include data variables, demographic, and geographical characteristics. We analyze data by t-test and correlation coefficient to test the first hypothesis, ANOVA was used. F value was used to test the hypotheses, and path analysis (estimating by partial least square method) was used to test other hypotheses. In the next step in the modeling, refining, and final variables were used to evaluate the model. Finally, the proposed model was applied. Results: Studies have shown that the average age of drivers was 42.85 years old, the average of work experience was 11.17, and the average of body mass index was 27.8 kg/m2 8/27 that showed an overweight. According to mean values of 79.5 for diastolic pressure and 119.5 for systolic pressure, the drivers are at risk high blood pressure. The average value of triglycerides (TGs) equaled 169.08. Moreover, the average value of cholesterol (CHOL) equaled 179.98 that is over 150, so in this respect, the drivers are at the border risk. The average value of fasting blood sugar equaled 96.19 close to the risk, and the depression equaled 93.47, and the average standard of health is 30–70. The average of smoking equaled 3.46. In addition, according to results of heart disease, on average, 7.8% of drivers suffer heart disease. The main components of risk factors include abdominal fat mass, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, and TGs and geographical factors affecting risk factors including air temperature and wind flow rate. Principal component-associated demographic risk factors include age and experience in driving. Conclusion: The results show that the relationship between demographic variables and risk factors is negative in the sense that the main risk factors among drivers are ages and experience of work. The results have shown that the relationship between the two variables of geographical features and risk factors is negative and significant. The results related to the relationship between risk factor and heart disease are positive and significant; this means that there is a relationship between the model of health management and reduction of cardiovascular disease. This kind of analysis can be helpful in setting realistic goals, diagnosis, and prediction of risk factors and management and futurists of officials; this model can be also effective for other diseases and related topics in the field of health and medical education.
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Disaster risk reduction knowledge of Grade 11 students: Impact of senior high school disaster education in the philippines Highly accessed article p. 69
Mark Anthony Catedral Mamon, Regin Adrian Vargas Suba, Ignacio Lakip Son
Introduction: The Department of Education of the Philippines implements one of the provisions of the Philippine disaster risk reduction and management act of 2010 (DRRM Act) to integrate DRRM in the school curriculum and other educational programs, and to heighten the level of resiliency of students toward natural disasters. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the disaster-related knowledge, preparedness and readiness, adaptation, awareness, and risk perception of Grade 11 students. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 respondents answered the survey questionnaire about DRRM. Responses of Grade 11 students were assessed using the five-point Likert scale. Results: There is a high percentage of students who understood some disaster-related concepts and ideas. Moreover, Grade 11 students are ready, prepared, adapted and aware on the risks inflicted by disasters. However, students were found to have low-disaster risk perception. Conclusion: Senior high school students have high levels of disaster-related knowledge, preparedness and readiness, adaptation, and awareness. This could possibly be the effect of the integration of disaster education in the senior high school science curriculum.
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Alarming rates of violence against women in Indonesia: United nations population fund p. 75
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
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