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   2015| April-June  | Volume 3 | Issue 2  
    Online since February 12, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The role of media in crisis management: A case study of Azarbayejan earthquake
Fateme Ghassabi, Firoozeh Zare-Farashbandi
April-June 2015, 3(2):95-102
DOI:10.4103/2347-9019.151323  
Introduction: In the age of information, mass media are considered one of the most important means of communication. This creates an important role for mass media in creating national unity and remodelling of public opinions due to the widespread access to the mass media. Crisis in all its forms are an inseparable part of mankind's life and their diversity is increasing over time. Mass media play a special role in providing information and making people aware of the situation during crisis situations. The media can calm the populace and encourage them to do positive actions, and vice versa, terrorized the populace and create chaos. The aim of this article is to evaluate the role of media in informing people in crisis situation caused by Azerbaijan earthquake based on the opinion of university students. Materials and Methods: This is an applied study using survey method. The statistical population consisted all of the students of Allameh Tabatabai University in Tehran and cluster sampling method was used to select 350 students for additional study. The data collection instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire. Results: The results showed that most respondents have been following the news through national television channels. According to the findings, the mass media plays an important and positive role in covering this incident motivated the populace to send humanitarian helps to disaster areas. Also most respondents tend to follow the news of the incident until the news coming from disaster areas return to normal. Discussion and Conclusion: All types of media play a critical role in disaster management, prior alarm systems and public education regarding disaster management; therefore, playing an important part in reducing the casualties and financial losses caused by such disasters. People expect mass media coverage during and after disasters and crises to be realistic, objective and non-promotional so that the events are reported in a precise and accurate manner.
  32,764 1,634 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Stress management in disasters based on holy Quran
Leila Mohammadinia, Raheleh Samouei, Akbar Kolahdouzan
April-June 2015, 3(2):49-53
DOI:10.4103/2347-9019.151299  
Disasters and accidents usually have adverse and serious consequences. Psychological problems such as stress are among these consequences. Therefore, the goal of this study is to propose a method for managing stress and achieving peace of mind for the victims and survivors of accidents and disasters based on the verses of the holy Quran. This is a review study in which keywords related to stress, peace of mind, psychological health, accidents and disasters, religion, Quran were searched in credible sites, articles, dissertations and known religious texts such as holy Quran and Nahjolbalaghe. The findings of this study is presented in two parts: Verses and Hadith which present accidents and disasters as means of achieving peace and humans spiritual growth and verses that present methods for counter stress and reaching peace of mind. The subjects presented in these parts are pointing out the pre-ordained nature of revenues, faith, remembering God, prayer, sound of reading Quran, daily prayers, trust in God, thinking about the goal of creation and patience which are described in length. Quran is the best shelter for the faithful and among the most effective ways of dealing with stress in accidents and disasters. Believing in religion and spirituality gives propose to accidents and disasters and somewhat grantees a person's spiritual growth as an aftermath of such disasters which can lead to peace of mind.
  12,280 499 -
Steps towards sustainable and resilient disaster management in Japan: Lessons from Cuba
Kenji Isayama, Naoya Ono
April-June 2015, 3(2):54-60
DOI:10.4103/2347-9019.151300  
Cuba is a hurricane-prone island in the Caribbean. Hurricanes are endemic to Cuban history. A major hurricane occurs in the country every few years, causing the destruction of homes but very few deaths. Though Cuba has limited economic resources, its healthcare system has managed to solve some problems that the Cuban population itself was unaware of. Furthermore, Cuba has an excellent record with respect to disaster preparedness and response, involving warnings and evacuations, in which governmental control of the population and the efficient organization of society by the state are effectively used to minimize the potential morbidity and mortality from hurricanes. Their unusual healthcare and disaster resilience strategy addresses these problems in ways developed based on Cuba's peculiar political and economic history. However, these systems created in terms of healthcare teams for all, an early focus on prevention and clear attention to community resilience may also inform progress in Japan. This review was conducted using resources from libraries and search engines using specific keyword combinations. The 50 most relevant publications from 2002 to 2014 are reviewed in detail. Though Cuba certainly faces many challenges such as an unsustainable conventional healthcare system, an aging society and economic vulnerability, Cuban disaster risk management incorporates preventive principles, education and community resilience. Similarly, Japanese disaster management should shift focus from emergency response to preventive strategies such as those in the Cuban disaster management plan and Hyogo Framework for Action. Moving towards more sustainable and resilient disaster management in Japan is essential.
  8,663 518 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Multi hazards risk assessment, a new methodology
Leila Eshrati, Amir Mahmoudzadeh, Masoud Taghvaei
April-June 2015, 3(2):79-88
DOI:10.4103/2347-9019.151315  
Background: Multi-hazards pose a serious threat to human life. It can cause considerable damages. The evaluation of the expected losses due to multi-hazards requires a risk assessment. Multi-hazards risk assessment allow the identification of the most endangered areas and suggest where further detailed studies have to be carried out. Aim: This study aims to give a new methodology for Multi-hazard risk assessment that makes easier the comparability analysis of vulnerability for different hazards and accounts for possible triggering (domino) effects. Materials and Methods: Methods used in this paper are based on theoretical approach and documentation. Two types of hazards will be assessed, namely earthquake and fire following earthquake. Statistical Analysis: Semi-quantitative and quantitative approach would assess risk rates at both regional and local levels. Result: In this study, representation of a new methodology for multi-hazards risk assessment includes determination of a model with parameters, consideration of the indicator-based pattern of vulnerability assessment that selected of all the relevant indicators and presented new classification of indicators based on comparison to different hazards and possible triggering (domino) effects. This means a potential multi-hazard indicator could be higher than the simple aggregation of single risk indicators calculation. Conclusion: The focus is on establishing a general overview of the emerging issues, and indicating how hazard relations can be considered in multi-hazard studies. The hazard relation is identified and studied by means of a new method and the overlay of hazard areas to determine overlaps in final multi-hazards map.
  7,372 826 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
The effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy and rational emotive behavior therapy in irrational believes treatment among young male prisoners who have antisocial personality disorder in Ilam Prison
Parisa Asmand, Shahram Mami, Reza Valizadeh
April-June 2015, 3(2):68-73
DOI:10.4103/2347-9019.151305  
Antisocial personality have some clear symptoms as impulsivity, unstable emotions, aggression, drinking, use of drug, early initiation of sexual behavior making some difficulties and problems in their relationship with family members and those who have interaction with them and at least in the society. According to the mentioned symptoms of this personality disorder in the present research, it has been tried to solve these problems by comparing with the effectiveness of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) and Rational Emotional Behaviour Therapy (REBT) in Irrational Treatment, Anxiety among young male prisoners who have antisocial personality in Ilam prison. The present emi-experimental project has been done by pretest and posttest selected purposely 64 subjects that have been selected purposely between 18-40 years among male prisoners in Ilam prison. Three questionnaires have been used which are as follow: Millon Clinical Questionnaire, Johns Irrational Beliefs and Back Anxiety questionnaire. In the study of the effectiveness of the therapies. The results showed that DBT has affected on all irrational beliefs (P < 0.05) and REBT only has affected on changing some beliefs. According to the findings obtained appears to be a DBT, therapeutic efficacy Is more efficient than REBT in irrational believes treatment, people with antisocial personality disorder.
  6,700 564 -
Communication between community leaders and healthcare providers for maternal and child health in conflict region of Asia: A review article
Mubashir Zafar
April-June 2015, 3(2):61-67
DOI:10.4103/2347-9019.151304  
Coordination between community leaders and healthcare providers for provision of maternal and child health (MNCH) in conflict areas is very important because community people are affected both physically and mentally due to conflict. Community leaders such as community chiefs, school teachers and church priests have very important role play in solving community health problems by proper arrangement of health facility from where community utilizes these services. In this paper, we report the number of scientific studies published from 2007 to 2011 about MNCH problem in conflict regions of world. Secondly, we study about the community leader role and communication with healthcare providers to solve the MNCH problem. Co-ordination between community leaders and healthcare providers to improving maternal and child health (MNCH), clinicians and health service utilization improve and protect population health. Overall, there is lack of published information about community leaders' role, i.e., accessibility, affordability and co-ordination with healthcare providers for the provision of MNCH services. We believe that high quality scientific approach must be taken in studies of MNCH with appropriate study design in order to obtain data and information regarding communication aspect between community leaders and healthcare professionals in MNCH programmes.
  5,550 366 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Phenotypic study of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, AmpC and Carbapenemase among E.coli clinical isolates in affiliated hospitals of Babol University of Medical Sciences
Zahra Shahandeh, Farahnaz Sadighian, Khadije Beigom Rekabpou
April-June 2015, 3(2):74-78
DOI:10.4103/2347-9019.151306  
Context: Escherichia coli as a member of Enterobacteriaceae have an important role in infections. Betalactams as a group of antibiotics are used in treatment, widely. Bacteria resist to these antibiotics by producing beta-lactamases. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the phenotypic methods for detecting Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC and Carbapenemase (Metallobetalactamase (MBL)) in E.coli. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional study for detection of beta-lactamases producing E.coli. Subject and Methods: E.coli were isolated from clinical specimens to perform Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test (AST) by disc diffusion method. These bacteria were evaluated for the production of ESBL, AmpC and Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) (Imipenem (IMP)-1) enzymes, by using  clinical and laboratory standards institue (CLSI) method and their inhibition by 3-amino-phenyl boronic acid and 2-mercaptopropionic acid, respectively. Also, mask-ESBL production was identified using the different concentration of 3-amino-phenyl boronic acid compound. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) 18 software. Results: Out of 259 isolated E.coli, 147 (56.8%) isolates were positive for producing at least one type of beta-lactamase. The frequency of ESBL, AmpC and IMP-1 producers were 137 (52.9%), 20 (7.7%) and 80 (31%) isolates, respectively. In addition, 88 (34%) isolates produced two or three types of enzymes simultaneously. Of the 88 isolates, 68 (77.3%) E.coli produced ESBL + IMP-1. Conclusions: This study revealed the high prevalence of beta-lactamase producing E.coli, and there are two or three different types of enzymes in a bacterium.
  4,251 510 -
The role of polyamine to increasing growth of plant: As a key factor in health crisis
Mohammad Fazilati, Amir Hossein Forghani
April-June 2015, 3(2):89-94
DOI:10.4103/2347-9019.151316  
Context: There is an increasing concern over predications that the world population will reach 8 billion in the next 25 years. Currently, many regions in Africa and Asia are experiencing a food crisis that is contributing to hunger, malnutrition and starvation. So each way to increasing yielding plant is a key factor to respond this demand. There are several elicitor to reach this target. Polyamines (PAS) are lightweight molecular that are present in all living organisms. PAS are necessary for the growth of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are the major PAS in plants. In plant cells, Put (diamine) is synthesized from ornithine and arginine by ornithine decarboxylase and arginine decarboxylase, respectively. With regard to the significance of the flower and oilseed of safflower, this research has been done on Put and its effect on the growth and development of safflower. Discussion :This experiment included three separate plans (A, B, C) and each plan has two different culture mediums that were called 'a' and 'b'. Finding and Conclusion: In this work, we found that maximum shoot regeneration belonged to Put A4 and Put A2 (Plan A). Also, the third plan has a significant reduction rather than first and second plan regarding rooting. According to data, the group with the highest shoot regeneration (A plan-Put A4) had maximum peroxidase activity also and the treatments of B plan with the lowest shoot regeneration had lowest enzyme activity.
  4,171 390 -
Toward a framework of statistical information system 1 for Iranian hospitals
Sakineh Saghaeiannejad-Esfahani, Asghar Ehteshami, Zohreh Mohammadi-Bertiani
April-June 2015, 3(2):103-108
DOI:10.4103/2347-9019.151327  
Statistical information is a valuable and strategic resource for decision making to each level of the management, especially in disaster and crisis situations. This issue in hospitals as a health care service due to their function (that are directly related to human life) is more significant. The SIS is required at hospital level to promote this need. This study provided a framework of a Statistical Information System for Iranian hospitals. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted using mixed methods with qualitative approach and Delphi technique during the 2013-14 in four phases: 1. Hospital statistical reports and indicator were identified and collected; 2. Based on the collected reports and indicator, an initial SIS framework was designed; 3. Delphi technique was used to determine the validity of the proposed framework; 4. Each accepted statistical indicator in previous phase was considered as SIS output and then input and process of them were determined. Results: More than 500 reports and indicators identified and about, 85% of them considered in the initial SIS framework; and all Initial SIS framework indicators accepted by the experts in the first round of Delphi. Then a framework of SIS is presented in three major pivots suggested 363 inpatients, emergency and outpatient indicators for the Iranian hospitals. Conclusion: To have timely, accurate, consistent and reliable statistical information for decision making for more and better care in hospital level, a SIS is required. One of the core components of Hospital Information System (HIS) is SIS. In this study, based statistical demand of Iranian hospital and scientific references, a framework of SIS is presented that consists three major pivots. It is clear that statistics in other pivot in hospital like financial, facilities and hospital equipment, human resource indicators and etc. are needed for complete this framework.
  2,948 216 -
Entrusting the role of organization health
Ayoob Soltani Nejad, Amir Soltani Nejad, Azadeh Izadi Yazdanabadi, Maryam Hoseini
April-June 2015, 3(2):109-113
DOI:10.4103/2347-9019.151329  
Context: Nowadays time management has a special place in the management science. Using time management strategies would increase the Organization's efficiency and with the benefit of time appropriate, waste of time and money in the organizations be prevented. Because of that time management can be called the science of time control and its proper use. Aim: Purpose of this study was to examine the role of giving authority in organization health in Bahonar University of Kerman. Theoretical framework in this study was taken from Mackenzie and Miles viewpoint about the organization health. Mackenzie summarizes organization's skills in 6 components, which of them is giving authority. Miles believes that for showing the health of an organization ten characteristics (Competence of adaptability, Problem solving competence, Focus on goals, Communication competence, Participation in the authority, Use of resources, Coherence and unity, The spirit, Independence and innovation) are required. Discussion: In this study, to investigate the role of authority in organizational health, survey method is used. The case in this study is staffs of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. On this basis, using sample size formula n = 272 from a total of 921 employees, is randomly selected, and for collecting data two separate questionnaires were used. Conclusion: In data analysis, in which SPSS software and test correlation is used, Pearson and Spearman and multiple regression was undertaken, it was found that, there is a significant relationship between giving authority and all components of organizational health at the Shahid Bahonar University. P values obtained from the two tests (especially Pearson) in all ten dimensions of organizational health, is less than significant level (0/05) and also values of all variables R and Rs is positive and less than 0.5, it shows that there is a significant and positive relationship between giving authority and all aspects of organizational health in Shahid Bahonar university.
  2,845 204 -
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